Curriculum vitae

Desmet Pierre

Professeur des universités
DRM

Pierre.DESMETping@dauphinepong.fr
Tel : 01 44 05 48 07
Bureau : A109

Publications

Articles

Desmet P. (2014), How retailer money-back guarantees influence consumer preferences for retailer versus national brands, Journal of Business Research, 67, 9, p. 1971–1978

Retailers often use money-back guarantees to reduce consumer perceived risk about brand quality and to increase their market share. The effect of such guarantees on perceived product quality and ultimately preference and product choice depends on their perceived value and credibility, related to other extrinsic clues, such as price and brand. An analysis of an experimental design with a national sample of consumers shows that compared with a simple money-back guarantee, a double money-back guarantee does not further increase the relative preference for a retailer brand over a national brand. Furthermore, the size of the effect of a money-back guarantee is small, moderated by the effects of other information on product quality, such as the size of the price differential between retailer and national brands. Finally, the effect of a money-back guarantee differs, depending on the customer-retailer relationship: A retailer with high credibility can influence regular customers less by guarantees.

Desmet P., Bordenave R., Traynor J. (2013), Comparaison des comportements d'achat en magasins laboratoires réel et virtuel, Recherche et applications en marketing, 28, 2, p. 71-86

Pour tester des initiatives marketing en magasin (packaging, prix,...), un magasin laboratoire virtuel (3D) offre une alternative attractive sur le plan opérationnel (coût, mise en oeuvre) au magasin laboratoire réel. Par une comparaison des comportements d'achat sur des échantillons contrôlés pour un produit de grande consommation, cette recherche montre que les comportements observés en rayon dans un magasin virtuel s'écartent significativement de ceux observés en magasin laboratoire réel. De plus, l'attention portée au prix est significativement inférieure, reflétant ainsi un processus de décision sensiblement différent. Ce résultat est conforté par la mise en évidence de l'effet modérateur de l'achat habituel de la marque, un consommateur placé dans un environnement virtuel moins familier est ainsi moins sensible à son environnement et fait plus appel à sa mémoire. Par contre, les mesures à dominante rationnelle , comme l'attitude vis-à-vis de la marque, ne sont pas influencées par le type de magasin visité auparavant. Les implications concernant le choix du type de magasin laboratoire sont développées, en particulier le fait que les effets comportementaux des manipulations des variables en magasin (packaging, prix) sont moins bien appréhendés dans le cadre d'un magasin laboratoire virtuel

In operational terms (cost, implementation), a virtual 3D laboratory store offers an attractive alternative to a physical laboratory store for testing in store marketing initiatives (packaging, price or other). This study compares controlled sample shopper behaviours for a consumer good and shows that the shopper behaviours observed in a virtual store are significantly different from the behaviours observed in a physical laboratory store. Also, significantly less attention is paid to price, reflecting a substantially different decision-making process. This finding is supported by highlighting the moderating effect of habitual purchasing of the brand: when placed in an unfamiliar virtual environment, the consumer is less sensitive to her environment and makes greater use of her memory. However, measures which are predominantly rational, such as attitude to the brand, are not influenced by the type of store visited previously. The article discusses the implications concerning the choice of the type of laboratory store environment, particularly the fact that the behavioural effects of manipulating in-store variables (packaging, price) are less clearly visible in a virtual laboratory store.

Esposito Vinzi V., Le Nagard E., Desmet P. (2012), Refund depth effects on the impact of price-beating guarantees, Journal of Business Research, 65, 5, p. 603-608

Refund depth may influence the effectiveness of a price guarantee when a store offers to reimburse customers more than the price difference. Using an experimental study that features real stores with high credibility, this article shows that a simple price-matching guarantee has no effect on either the perceived value of an offer or intentions to visit the store. Low and high penalty levels have smaller effects than intermediate penalties, but the believability of price guarantee offers that contain a penalty remains constant; this finding may reflect a general distrust of additional penalties.

Desmet P. (2010), Are emotions consequences of affective expectations? A commentary essay, Journal of Business Research, 63, 8, p. 903-904

This issue contains a reinterpretation of the pleasure-arousal-dominance (PAD) model that states only pleasure is pertinent and that cognition precedes pleasure (see Massara et al., 2010). However, such a reinterpretation of the PAD model, in which emotion is a simple signal of the need for an adjustment, suffers from some serious challenges. According to appraisal tendency theory, the theoretical framework should include many more dimensions, as well as individual variables that moderate the link between arousal and pleasure. From a methodological perspective, the utilitarian scenario (grocery shopping in a virtual store) actually appears in an emotional framework, and the atmospherics are sufficiently invasive to stimulate a cognitive appraisal of the situation.

Sabri O., de Pechpeyrou P., Parguel B., Desmet P. (2007), Format Effects in Volume Discounts to Consumers, The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 16, 5, p. 348-357

PurposeUsing a classification of benefits and costs of promotional offers (Raghubir et al., 2004) along three routes - economic, informational and affective - this paper aims at evaluating, from the consumer's point of view, the relative perceptual disadvantages of separate-item bundles compared to pre-wrapped bundles.Design/methodology/approachThe marketing literature and a qualitative study based on 18 consumers permit us to identify the relative perceived costs and benefits associated with separate-item bundles and to derive hypotheses. An experiment on a sample of 120 adult consumers was then set up to test these hypotheses. FindingsThe findings suggest that consumers associate separate-item bundles with higher economic benefit but also with higher inspection costs. From a more global perspective, there is no loss of interest in separate-item bundles compared to pre-wrapped bundles.Research limitations/implicationsFocusing our research on separate-item bundles clarifies the way consumers evaluate promotions. Its qualitative phase gives support to the relevance of an "informational route" (Raghubir et al., 2004), beyond the traditional utilitarian and hedonic routes (Chandon et al., 2000). Its quantitative phase confirms the importance of cognitive biases in consumers' perceptions of promotions.Practical implicationsThe numerous advantages of separate-item bundles for manufacturers and retailers and their attraction to consumers should lead to an increasingly intensive use in promotional campaigns. Besides, the quality of in-store communication is the most important factor of the success of separate-item bundles, which provides the opportunity to propose meaningful recommendations for practitioners.Originality/value of paperIf the strengths and weaknesses of separate-item bundles have already been studied from a managerial point of view, to our knowledge, no research has focused on separate-item bundle efficiency from the consumer's point of view.

Desmet P., Mimouni A., Parguel B., de Pechpeyrou P. (2006), Valeur et sincérité perçues d'une promotion multi-mécanismes, Recherche et applications en marketing, 21, 4, p. 25-40

Une promotion multi-mécanismes associe dans la même communication plusieurs mécanismes promotionnels. L'efficacité relative de ce type de promotions sur les choix du consommateur dépend de deux effets antagonistes. D'une part, la théorie des prospects postule un effet direct positif de la superposition des mécanismes sur la valeur perçue de la promotion car le consommateur valorise davantage une offre présentant les gains de manière séparée (principe de ségrégation). D'autre part, la superposition des mécanismes pourrait réduire indirectement cette valeur perçue à travers une moindre sincérité perçue. Une expérimentation inter-sujets portant sur 210 adultes et proposant un nombre variable de mécanismes monétaires pour une valeur constante de l'offre montre que la promotion mono-mécanisme est préférée. Des implications managériales sont proposées concernant les nouveaux instruments de promotion qui utilisent fréquemment des opérations multi-mécanismes associant industriels et distributeurs.

A multi-mechanism promotion includes in the same communication several promotional techniques. The relative efficiency of this kind of promotion on consumers' choices depends upon two antagonist effects. On the one hand, prospect theory predicts a positive direct influence of multiple mechanisms on perceived value of the promotion, since consumers prefer gains that are presented separately (segregation principle). On the other hand, increasing the number of mechanisms should have an indirect negative effect on perceived value through reduced perceived trustworthiness. A between-subjects experimentation on 210 adult consumers is conducted, with a varying number of promotional mechanisms for a constant monetary saving. Results of the experiment show that promotions with only one mechanism are preferred. Managerial implications are developed, concerning multi-mechanism promotions organized by industrials and retailers.

Desmet P., Jolibert A. (2005), Editorial, numéro spécial sur le thème de : Stratégie produits, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 20, 3, p. 1-2

Desmet P., Le Nagard E. (2005), Differential Effects of Price-beating Versus Price-matching Guarantee on Retailers' Price Image, The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 14, 6, p. 393-399

The purpose is to study the effect of a low-price guarantee (PG) on store price image and store patronage intention. Two kinds of low-price guarantee are studied, a price-matching guarantee (PMG) where the price difference is refunded and a price-beating guarantee (PBG) where a retailer offers an additional compensation (in this case ten times the price difference).

Desmet P. (2004), Effetti segnaletici della promozione sull'accettazione di un prodotto di largo consumo, Micro & Macro Marketing, 3, p. 663-676

In the article, we want to study existence and valence of the signal given by a promotional communication, usually associated with a price discount. An individual utility model is used to analyze data from a Gabor & Granger price study. Results show that promotion signal increase price sensitivity and rejection rate beacuse the price is too high.

Desmet P. (2004), Les déterminants du prix et la représentation mentale du consommateur, Revue de la concurrence et de la consommation, 140, 4, p. 15-19

Cet article dresse un panorama des connaissances sur le rôle du prix dans le processus d'achat du consommateur, sur la manière dont le consommateur traite l'information sur le prix ainsi que sur ses réactions face aux tarifs.

Desmet P. (2004), Effet signal d'une réduction promotionnelle du prix : concept et expérimentation, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 19, 1, p. 25-37

L'effet observé à court terme d'une réduction promotionnelle du prix sur la demande est souvent positif du fait de la valorisation des bénéfices offerts par la promotion et par le simple effet signal engendré par la communication promotionnelle. Lorsque le consommateur effectue une évaluation approfondie de l'offre promotionnelle et qu'il manque d'informations (sur le montant de la réduction ou le prix de base), l'information transmise par la promotion, qui est à la source de l'effet signal, est aussi utilisée pour élaborer le cadre du choix. Un conflit entre la cherté perçue et le signal promotionnel peut donc dévaloriser une offre. Dans ces conditions, nous montrons, par l'analyse des résultats d'une expérimentation sur 320 consommateurs, que le changement du cadre du choix résultant d'une offre promotionnelle conduit à un rejet d'achat plus important d'une marque premium pour un produit de grande consommation. Si ce résultat d'un effet négatif d'une réduction promotionnelle du prix sur la demande à court terme est rarement observé sur les ventes, il doit cependant conduire les managers à anticiper une baisse de l'efficacité promotionnelle lorsque la réduction de prix n'est pas indiquée et à en limiter l'usage pour les marques premium.

Signaling effect of a promotional price reduction: concept and experimentation Abstract Sales promotion has often positive effects on short term demand effects due to the benefits provided and to the signaling effect of the communication. If information is missing (regular price, price reduction) when consumers have an extended choice process, the information transmitted by the sales promotion communication is used not only as a signal but also to elaborate the choice frame. Thus conflicting information between the promotional signal and perceived expensiveness can reduce perceived value. Under these conditions the author show, through analysis of experimental data on 320 consumers, that changes due to a promotional price reduction can result in higher rejection for a premium brand in a consumer good market. While decreases in sales volume due to promotional price reductions are not frequently observed, such a possibility means that managers have to anticipate a reduction of their promotional effectiveness when price reduction is not indicated (special offer) and to avoid its use for premium brands. Key words: Sales promotion, price reduction, promotion signal, experiment, Gabor & Granger.

Desmet P. (2003), Promotion des ventes et capital marque, Revue Française de Gestion, 29, 145, p. 175-185

Assimilée à une réduction de prix, la promotion des ventes a souvent été vue comme une technique réduisant le capital marque. Une vue élargie de cette question est proposée avec la présentation des effets indirects qui peuvent effectivement accroître l'importance accordée au prix et donc réduire la rentabilité des investissements publicitaires. Mais la promotion est aussi un moyen de communication original, plus impliquant, qui peut contribuer à l'image de la marque et dont les effets sont mesurables.

Often reduced to a price reduction, sales promotion is very often presented as a commercial technique with damaging effect on brand value. We propose a broader view of this question and first explain why sales promotion can increase price elasticity and so reduce profitbility associated with advertising expenses. Then we show that sales promotion is part of an integrated communication approach and by its uniqueness and its involving power can contribute to the brand image in a very accountable way.

Desmet P., Feinberg F. (2003), Ask and Ye Shall Receive: The Effect of the Appeals Scale on Consumers' Donation Behavior, Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 3, p. 349-376

Managers in the fundraising and public sectors face the constant challenge of soliciting donations from a population who may or may not have donated before. Rather than merely asking respondents what they wish to donate, it is standard practice to present a set of suggested amounts - the appeals scale - in making donation requests. We study the relationship between what is requested and what is received by incorporating prior donation history into a comprehensive, 'attraction'-based model of donation behavior. A large-scale field trial, coupled with a unique donation database from a French charity, allows measurement of several distinct appeals scale effects while accounting for underlying heterogeneity in donation behavior. A segment-level Bayesian model for the distribution of donations clarifies the influence of the appeals scale on donor behavior, as well the effect of 'round' scale values, such as those appearing on common bank notes. We find that the former effect can account for as much as 12% of overall donation behavior, the latter 7%, and moreover that these effects are essentially additive. Both effects, as well as proximity of scale points to a group-wise reference level, substantially alter the distribution of donations received. The data suggest that donations can be strongly influenced by choosing appropriate quantities to ask for, suggesting avenues for improving the practice of soliciting charitable requests.

Desmet P. (2002), A study of the Potential Effects of the Conversion to Euro, The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 11, 3, p. 134-144

Early research work confirms that the use of the new European currency, the euro, could create an effect of money illusion: expressed in euros, perceived prices seem lower and price elasticity diminished. But it also concludes on the complexity of the relationship between prices, currency unit and behavior as the money illusion effect can either increase or decrease demand for specific brands. Tests the assumption that the size of the money illusion could vary by country and is positively related to the level of the conversion rate. Applies the Gabor and Granger method to the price of an item of domestic equipment in two countries, one with a big conversion rate (Spain), and one with a small conversion rate (Germany). Observes a money illusion effect is observed with an increase in intention to buy when the prices are expressed in euros in Germany but, as this effect is not observed in Spain, concludes that a positive relationship between money illusion and conversion rate cannot be accepted and proposes alternative hypotheses, such as the difficulty of the conversion

Desmet P. (2002), Les prix en euro : questions, méthodes et premiers résultats, Décisions Marketing, 25, 1, p. 7-16

The arrival in France of the euro in 2002, and the withdrawal of the franc, have been anticipated within many companies in all operational areas (payroll, billing and accounting for example). As far as price policy is concerned, the company must determine, beyond the compulsory legal conversion, the prices that will be set in euros, taking into account the consequences in terms of both unitary margin and demand. This article is dealing only with price policy, and puts forward the most important questions, these relate to the effects of the euro and categories of method that could be used to clarify choices, along with the limited number of early results that have been published.

Desmet P. (2001), Buying behavior study with basket analysis : pre-clustering with a Kohonen map, European journal of economic and social systems, 15, 2, p. 17-30

From the products bought, by basket analysis we seek to infer interest, values and choice criteria and predict purchase probabilities for other products. This statistical approach relies on the existence of a few general under-lying clusters which enables the prediction of general and specific buying behavior. Compared to traditional clustering methods, a Kohonen map, a neural network, allows the projection and clustering of data for which the proximity presents a meaning or interest. Beyond the interest of these neural networks for graphic representation, this article suggests different ways of articulating general and product-specific typologies which are illustrated on a real database of buyers' behavior in a book club. The results clearly show a significant improvement with regards to the results obtained with current models using either RFM segmentation or logistic regression.

Gaston Breton C., Desmet P. (2001), Effet du passage à l'euro sur les marques de distributeurs : une réplication partielle de l'étude de Diller et Ivens, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 16, 4, p. 47-56

L'étude cherche à répliquer, pour la France, les observations effectuées par Diller et Ivens (2000) en Allemagne d'un report partiel de la demande vers les marques les plus chères aux dépens des marques pratiquant des prix bas. par une approche différente fondée sur la collecte des intentions d'achat entre une marque de distributeur et des marques nationales, les résultats confirment cet effet d'illusion monétaire même si les écarts observés sont faibles. la manipulation de l'écart de prix entre la MDD et la marque nationale permet aussi de mettre en évidence que l'effet de report vers la marque nationale est plus faible lorsque l'écart de prix s'accroît.

This research aims to replicate for France the results obtained by Diller and Ivens (2000) in Germany in which it was found that part of the demand is transferred from low price to high price brands. Using a different methodology involving buying intention data towards a private and a national brand, this study confirms the existence of the money illusion effect even if the magnitude is small. Looking at the effects of price differences between the brands, this study also shows that the transfer toward the national brand is smaller when the price difference increases.

Desmet P. (2000), Politiques de prix sur Internet, Revue Française du Marketing, 177-178, 2-3, p. 49-68

La transparence offerte par Internet sur les conditions tarifaires conduit souvent à anticiper une concurrence plus forte entre des offres plus facilement comparables et, donc, une compression des marges et une baisse des prix. Cet article a pour but d'explorer en quoi ces craintes sont justifiées, mais aussi de montrer que la politique de prix sera différemment influencée en fonction des caractéristiques du marché. Selon la combinaison d'une offre différenciée ou non, d'autres politiques de prix (vente aux enchères, yield management, prix à la demande) peuvent être utilisées qui, dans certaines conditions, permettront même au vendeur d'accroître son pouvoir de marché sur l'acheteur

Internet offers real openness on pricing policy increasing the buyer's market power. Higher competition should result from an easier comparison of the offers with, as a consequence, price decrease and lower margins. This article explores the validity of such an assumption and studies major determinants as market characteristics. Depending on two factors, differentiation and segmentation degrees, other pricing policies as auctions sales, yield management or pricing on demand, can be used and they can reverse the initial proposition and lead to a higher market power for the seller on the buyer.

Desmet P. (2000), Hedonic Prices and Colinearity: An Empirical Comparison of Statistical and Neuronal Solutions, Fuzzy Economic Review, 5, 1, p. 61-75

The hedonic price method is well adapted to the calculation of relative prices and the estimation of the quality price relationship for a complex product. The main weakness lies in the use of multiple regression for the evaluation of the coefficients when there is very little data and when the variables are correlated. In this article, various methods, statistical and neuronal, are compared from both the predictive capacity point of view as well as that of the facial validity of the expected results. The neuronal approach is globally more successful than PLS regression but neither of the two methods leads to an acceptable solution to the problems of interpretation of the coefficients (signs and values ) stemming from colinearity.

Desmet P., Hendaoui F. (2000), La relation prix-qualité dans l'automobile : comparaison de méthodes d'estimation des prix hédoniques, Revue Française du Marketing, 179-180, 4-5, p. 167-179

La méthode des prix hédoniques a été proposée pour fixer le prix d'un produit complexe, comportant des attributs séparables, ou pour déterminer son prix relatif. Elle repose sur l'évaluation du prix de chaque composante formant cette offre groupée, par une approche statistique des équilibres des marchés observés. Elle est utilisée en pratique dans le secteur de l'automobile comme pour les biens durables et semi-durables. L'un des principaux problèmes à résoudre est celui de la validité faciale des valeurs obtenues pour les attributs compte tenu de la multi colinéarité. dans cet article nous analysons et illustrons l'intérêt pratique de deux méthodes connexionises, à base de réseaux de neurones multi couches, par rapport à la méthode traditionnelle de régression linéaire. les résultats ne permettent pas de conclure à une nette supériorité de ceux ci malgré leur plus grande souplesse dans la prise en compte des interactions netre les variables

The hedonic prices method has been proposed to determine the price of a complex product, with several separable attributes, or to evaluate its relative price. It is based on the evaluation of a separate price for each component of the bundle with a statistical approach of market equilibrium. This method is used for automobile and for durable goods as well (computers, apartments...). One of the major drawbacks is the insufficient facial validity of estimated prices, due to a multicolinearity problem. In this paper, we analyze and compare the practical interest of two neural multilayer networks versus linear regression. These results lead us to the conclusion that there is no obvious superiority of neural networks in spite of their higher adaptability to cope with the interactions between the characteristics.

Windal P., Desmet P. (2000), Les méthodes de mesure de l'importance des critères de satisfaction, Revue Française du Marketing, 179-180, 4-5, p. 205-220

Customer satisfaction has a major influence on customer loyalty and knowing its determinants enables the manager to improve his quality of service and the customer lifetime value. Nevertheless, customer satisfaction is the result of a service encounter whose characteristics are numerous and often correlated. This paper describes the principle, characteristics and performance of several regression techniques in order to determine the weight of criteria, with satisfaction data collected by questionnaire. An empirical comparison on convergent validity, stability and dispersion of weights draws to the conclusion of the superiority of PLS and sequential stepwise regression.

Desmet P. (2000), Relative performance of the statistical learning network: An application of the price-quality relationship in the automobile, European Journal of Economic and Social Systems, 14, 1, p. 69-79

The design and topology of a neural network is still an important and difficult task. To solve the problems of topology posed by the introduction of connexionism, new approaches are proposed, and especially a combination of induction rules with a statistical estimation of the neuron coefficients for each layer. This research aims to compare an algorithm of this SLN approach with traditional methods (regression and classical BP neural networks) using the gradient method. Methods are put into application to determine the price-quality relationship of a complex product, the automobile, according to the hedonic price model. This application of the price-quality relationship to the English automobile market leads to the conclusion that the claimed superiority of this approach is unsubstantiated since, compared to the BP neural networks and even linear regression, the performance of the GMDH method is inferior.

Desmet P. (1999), Asking for Less to Obtain More, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 13, 3, p. 55-65

In response to a drop in collected funds, charitable associations have implemented a rigorous approach to the target decisions and communication for fundraising. Prior studies have shown that manipulating the scale of donations influences the collection results. This study was carried out within an experimental framework and takes into account the donors' previous behavior. Results show that only certain parts of the scale of donations can influence the amount collected or the number of donations and that prior behaviour is a powerful predictor.

Desmet P. (1999), Le Lot Virtuel : une application d'un marketing interactif de masse, Décisions Marketing, 16, 1, p. 61-66

Virtual bundling allows cost reduction for sales promotion for both producer and retailer as it avoids costs of physical bundling (packaging). Furthermore, this technique constitutes a new opportunity to apply an interactive targeted marketing approach by relating the advantage offered to the real behaviour.

Desmet P. (1998), The Impact of Mail Order on Subsequent Donations: An Experiment, Financial Accountability & Management, 14, 3, p. 203-214

To charitable organizations, catalogue mail order firms offer an opportunity to expand both database and revenue. But an offer must be made very carefully since motivation for a donation (altruistic) seems incompatible with that of a purchase (economic). This research is designed to study the impact of sending a catalogue offer to actual donors on their subsequent donation behavior. An experimental study with a French charitable institution shows that while mail order sales do indeed erode traditional public canvassing campaigns, this erosion nonetheless remains limited. It also reveals that traditional donors seem to be reluctant to use this commercial approach.

Zollinger M., Desmet P. (1998), L'Euro : conversion de prix ou remise en cause des stratégies marketing ?, Décisions Marketing, 13, 1, p. 7-16

Conversion to the single European currency, the euro, requires good management of the transition on the part of companies, both internally and externally, taking into account the importance of communication which is necessary to win consumer confidence. Through the unification of the European market, this change of currency radically alters not only price policy but also, through a rebound effect, product policy and international marketing strategy.

Desmet P., Renaudin V. (1998), Estimation of Product Category Sales Responsiveness to Allocated Shelf-Space, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15, 5, p. 443-457

A retail chain manager must draw on experience based on data available from his points of sale to diagnose space misallocations in stores and to make recommendations. This paper presents an empirical estimate of shelf space elasticities from a variety store chain database at product category level with a share of space vs. share of sales econometric model. It suggests that external influences could explain space elasticity differences. Results show that space elasticities increase with the impulse buying rate of the product category and do not depend on the type of store.

Desmet P. (1996), Comparaison de la prédictivité d'un réseau de neurones à rétropropagation avec celles des méthodes de régression linéaire, logistique et AID pour le calcul des scores en marketing direct, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 11, 2, p. 17-27

Par rapport aux méthodes statistiques classiques, les avantages de réseaux de neurones à rétropropagation sont connus et nombreux. Cependant les conditions de mise en oeuvre et la supériorité réelle en prédiction ne sont encore que peu documentées. L'article relève les recherches précédentes sur les analyses comparatives effectuées en marketing et présente les résultats obtenus pour la prédiction d'un comportement en collecte de fonds

In comparison with other statistical methods (MCO, logistic regression, disciminant analysis, AID), the advantages of a neural network with retropropagation are numerous and well known (non linear effects, distribution free variables, low sensibility to outlyers or missing variables). However, implementation and efficiency have not yet received a strong interest. The paper reviews comparative analyses and presents the results obtained in predicting a behavior in Fund raising.

Chapitres d'ouvrage

Desmet P. (2014), Politique de prix, in Dufour B. (dir.), MBA? : l'essentiel du management par les meilleurs professeurs, Paris?, Eyrolles, p. 369-387

Desmet P. (2008), Politique de prix, in Bertonèche M., David A. (dir.), MBA : l'essentiel du management par les meilleurs professeurs, Paris, Editions d'Organisation, p. 311-336

Desmet P., Zollinger M. (2006), Price and Geographic Information, in Cliquet G. (eds), Geomarketing: Methods and Strategies in Spatial Marketing, Hoboken, NJ, J. Wiley, p. 217-239

Communications

Cadario R., Le Nagard E., Desmet P. (2013), The impact of online consumer reviews on purchase decisions: an exploratory approach, 16ème Colloque International Etienne Thil, Paris, France

Depuis plusieurs années, l'évolution des canaux de distribution passe de plus en plus par une forme complexe multi-canal, à travers le développement croissant de l'Internet. Parallèlement à cette évolution, se développent de nombreuses plateformes de dépôt d'avis de consommateurs en ligne (ACL), permettant d'apporter des informations sur la qualité des produits et services pour les consommateurs futurs. Bien que grandissante, la littérature marketing à ce sujet est incomplète et présente de nombreuses limites théoriques et empiriques. L'objectif de cette recherche est d'explorer le concept d'avis de consommateur afin d'en présenter le contexte et les enjeux pour les entreprises, ainsi que les voies de recherches futures.

The evolution of distribution channels evolves towards a complex multi-channel form, through the increasing importance of the Internet. Along this line, consumer online reviews (COR) platforms rise in order to provide information about the quality of products and services. Despite a growing empirical literature, little is known about the impact of COR on purchase decisions. In this research, we explore the concept of COR in order to present its particular context and to discuss managerial issues, as well as direction for future research.

Traynor J., Bordenave R., Desmet P. (2012), Comparing Shopping Behavior In Real Lab Stores And Virtual Lab Store, EMAC : 41st annual conference, Lisbonne, Portugal

Cadario R., Le Nagard E., Desmet P. (2012), Do Network Externalities Really Matter In Consumer Behavior ? Experimental Framework For Measuring Willingness To Pay For Network Size, EMAC : 41st annual conference, Lisbonne, Portugal

Consequences of network externalities, such as product growth and innovation diffusion, are widely studied in marketing literature. However, there is little empirical research that examines the existence of such network externalities in consumer behavior. When and how do consumers take into account the installed base, and the availability of complementary goods in the decision process? To help answer this question, an experimental study was built to demonstrate that network size actually influences consumers' choice in the case of e-book readers. We find that when the intrinsic value associated with a product is controlled, willingness to pay for network size is positive and confirms that consumers are in fact willing to pay a "premium" for the installed base and the availability of complementary goods. Implications of these findings for new product development and possible extensions are also discussed.

de Pechpeyrou P., Parguel B., Mimouni A., Desmet P. (2006), Perceived value and trustworthiness of a multi-mechanism promotion, Venice-Paris 5th Marketing Trends Congress, Venise, Italie

Une promotion multi-mécanismes associe dans la même communication plusieurs mécanismes promotionnels mis en place par le distributeur et l'industriel. D'après la théorie des prospects, la multiplication des mécanismes devrait être créatrice de valeur pour le consommateur. Une expérimentation inter-sujet sur 210 consommateurs, proposant un ou plusieurs mécanismes monétaires pour une valeur constante de l'offre, montre que la promotion simple est préférée. De plus les résultats mettent en avant l'importance de la sincérité perçue dans la valeur perçue d'une offre promotionnelle.

A multi-mechanism sales promotion includes in the same communication several promotion techniques offered either by the retailer or the producer. Framing theory suggests that increasing the number of techniques could increase the perceived value for consumers. A between-subjects experimentation on 210 consumers proposing several offers with the same monetary value indicates that simpler, mono-mechanism offers are preferred. Furthermore, results clearly underline the importance of trustworthiness in the valuation process.

Desmet P., Sabri O., Parguel B., de Pechpeyrou P. (2006), Consumer's perceptions and evaluations of virtual bundling, Conférence Etienne Thil, La Rochelle, France

Le lot virtuel est une offre promotionnelle qui conditionne l'obtention d'une gratuité ou d'une réduction à l'achat simultané d'un nombre déterminé d'unités de produits présentées séparément. Technique promotionnelle présentant de nombreux avantages pour les distributeurs comme pour les industriels, le lot virtuel connaît actuellement un développement rapide dans la grande distribution. Néanmoins, aucune recherche ne s'est jusqu'ici penchée sur l'efficacité du lot virtuel du point de vue du consommateur. Une étude qualitative menée auprès de neuf consommateurs a permis de mettre en évidence la perception de freins associés à cette forme de promotion. Une expérimentation portant sur 120 consommateurs adultes a été mise en place afin de tester les hypothèses issues de la revue de littérature et de l'étude qualitative. Les résultats permettent de conclure qu'il n'y a pas de réduction significative de l'intérêt pour le lot virtuel par rapport au lot réel.

Virtual bundling is a promotional offer in which obtaining free product or money discount is linked to the purchase of a certain number of products presented separately. As a promotional technique offering numerous advantages to retailers and manufacturers, virtual bundling is more and more used in mass marketing. Nevertheless, till now, no research has concentrated on its efficiency from the consumer point of view. From a qualitative study based on nine consumers, the perceived costs associated with virtual bundling have been identified. An experimentation on a sample of 120 adult consumers was set up to test the hypotheses derived from the literature and the qualitative study. The results show that there is no loss of interest for the virtual bundle compared to the real bundle.

Sabri O., Desmet P., de Pechpeyrou P., Parguel B. (2006), Consumer's perceptions and evaluations of virtual bundling, ANZMAC, Brisbane, Australie

Une étude qualitative et l'analyse statistique d'une expérimentation inter sujets montre que les lots virtuels en promotion des ventes sont associés à un bénéfice économique perçu plus important mais génèrent aussi des coûts cognitifs perçus plus importants.

Virtual bundles are promotional offers in which obtaining free product or money discount is linked to the purchase of a certain number of products presented separately. As it offers numerous advantages to retailers and manufacturers, virtual bundling is more and more used in mass marketing. Nevertheless, till now, no research has focused on its efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relative efficiency of virtual bundles compared to real bundles from the consumer's point of view. From a qualitative study based on nine consumers, the perceived costs associated with virtual bundles have been identified. An experimentation on a sample of 120 adult consumers was then set up to test the hypotheses derived from the literature and the qualitative study. The findings suggest that consumers associate virtual bundles with higher economic benefit but also with cognitive costs.

Parguel B., de Pechpeyrou P., Desmet P., Mimouni A. (2006), Perceived value and trustworthiness of a multi-mechanism promotion, 2006 International Association for Research in Economic Psychology Conference, Paris, France

Une promotion multi-mécanismes associe dans la même communication plusieurs mécanismes promotionnels mis en place par le distributeur et l'industriel. D'après la théorie des prospects, la multiplication des mécanismes devrait être créatrice de valeur pour le consommateur. Une expérimentation inter-sujet sur 210 consommateurs, proposant un ou plusieurs mécanismes monétaires pour une valeur constante de l'offre, montre que la promotion simple est préférée. De plus les résultats mettent en avant l'importance de la sincérité perçue dans la valeur perçue d'une offre promotionnelle.

The goal of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of monetary multi-mechanism promotions. These promotions include in the same communication several techniques offered either by the retailer or by the producer. The conceptual framework relies on prospect theory, already used in marketing literature to study the effects of price and promotional techniques (Gupta and Cooper, 1992). It also integrates the perceived trustworthiness of the offer, a key variable for the evaluation of advertising messages (Goldsmith and al., 2000).

Bréchet A., Desmet P., de Pechpeyrou P. (2005), Effects of multidimensional price announcement on brand trust, 4ème Conférence internationale des tendances du marketing, Paris, France

Un prix multidimensionnel comporte plusieurs éléments que le client doit recomposer pour obtenir le prix à payer. L'annonce d'un prix multidimensionnel se contente souvent de mettre en évidence une seule des dimensions car cette présentation conduit le consommateur à percevoir un prix plus faible. Dans le cadre d'une expérimentation, cette étude montre que, au delà des conséquences légales d'une formulation trompeuse, l'utilisation de ce type de présentation réduit la confiance dans la marque, surtout pour les clients peu attachés . La confiance étant la base de la qualité de la relation à long terme, les effets négatifs à moyen terme pourraient donc dépasser l'effet positif à court terme de la perception d'un prix plus faible.

A multi-dimensional price contains several elements the client has to put together to obtain the final price. The announcement of a multi-dimensional price usually is limited to a focus on only one of the dimensions as this presentation entices the consumer in perceiving a reduced price. Using an experiment, this study shows that, beyond the risk of law suits for misleading formulation, using this presentation reduces confidence in the brand, especially for non familiar consumers. Trust being the basis for the quality of a long term relationship, the mid-term negative effects could thus overtake the short term positive effect from the perception of a lower price.

Desmet P., Le Nagard E. (2005), Price matching guarantees: effects of offering discrepancy discounts, 34th EMAC Conference : Rejuvenating marketing, Milan, Italie

Desmet P. (2004), Le prix en question : la nouvelle sensibilité du consommateur, SEMO 2004, Paris, France

Desmet P. (2004), Negative effect of the promotion signal on reference price, 33rd EMAC Conference : "Worldwide Marketing ?", Murcie, Espagne

Desmet P. (2003), Réseaux de neurones et Marketing, Conférence internationale ACSEG, NANTES, France

La communication présente les principales applications de réseaux de neurones en marketing

de Pechpeyrou P., Desmet P., Goudey A. (2003), Internet traffic : at the crossroads of advertising approach and direct marketing, 2ème Journée de recherche sur le E-Marketing, AFM-AIM, Nantes, France

Principalement sous forme de bannières, la communication sur Internet offre des possibilités de communication attractives mais ne représente encore qu'une très faible partie des investissements publicitaires tous média considérés. La mesure de l'audience et sa qualification sont essentielles tant pour le site qui cherche à connaître son trafic et ses performances, que pour l'annonceur qui vise à mettre en oeuvre une politique de communication online. Or, du fait de la spécificité et de la jeunesse du média Internet, les outils de mesure sont encore balbutiants et leur divergence est un frein au développement de la communication publicitaire. Cet article présente les caractéristiques et les différences entre les mesures de fréquentation sur le site (site centric) et celles effectuées à partir de panels (user centric). Sont ensuite abordés les obstacles, tant méthodologiques que techniques, qui restent encore à surmonter pour harmoniser les méthodes de mesure d'audience.

Mainly based on banners, online communication is very attractive but consists in a small part of overall advertisement investments. Audience measurement and its qualification are primordial for both sites which want to measure their traffic and performance, and also for announcers who want to plan online communication. As the Internet is still a new media, measuring tools are slowly becoming mature and their diversity is slowing down online investment in communication. This article deals with characteristics and differences between site centric approaches and user centric ones. The authors try to underline methodological and technical difficulties for normalizing audience measurement.

Desmet P. (2003), A Study of the Effect of a Promotion signal on Buying decision for a consumer product, 3ème Conférence internationale des tendances du marketing, Paris, France

L'article étudie l'effet de signal d'une promotion par réduction de prix, c'est-à-dire l'effet de la simple communication de la promotion. Un modèle d'utilité individuelle sur des données empiriques de type Gabor et Granger met en évidence que le simple ajout de la mention de "promotion" accroît la sensibilité au prix et, contrairement aux résultats antérieurs, cela augmente le rejet d'achat de la marque pour un prix trop cher. Les résultats ne valident pas non plus l'existence d'un effet spécifique d'asymétrie par rapport au prix de référence individuel.

In the article, we want to study existence and valence of the signal given by a promotional communication, usually associated with a price discount. An individual utility model is used to analyse empirical data from Gabor & Granger study. Results show that signal increase price effect and that, contrary to usual expectations, it increase by rejection because the price is too high. Asymmetric effect for a positive devation from the reference price is also not validated.

Documents de travail

Desmet P., Traynor J. (2010), Systematic Differences in Test Results across Real vs. Virtual Shopper Laboratory Stores, Cahier de recherche DRM, Paris, Université Paris-Dauphine, 37

To limit the risk of failure in marketing initiatives while preserving confidentiality, businesses employ tests carried out in shopper laboratory stores. Compared with real market testing, real or virtual tests in such stores can reduce costs, and facilitate implementation and control of the environment. This study confirms that tested in 'real' or 'virtual' environments, product and brand image evaluations bear comparison. However, it reveals significant differences in behavioural indicators supporting non-substitutability of data collection methods: virtual shopping behaviour is not real shopping behaviour. Shoppers spend more time in the virtual aisle, attention to price and prompted product recall are strongly modified, and there are major differences between regular buyers (more likely to buy their usual product in a virtual environment) and infrequent buyers.

Retour à la liste