Curriculum vitae

Parguel Béatrice

Chargé de recherche CNRS
DRM

beatrice.parguelping@dauphinepong.fr
Site web personnel

Biographie

Chercheure CNRS au sein de l’Université Paris-Dauphine, Béatrice Parguel anime le Center for Marketing and Public Policy Research. En psychologie de la consommation, ses recherches s’appuient sur la méthodologie expérimentale et visent des implications pour les pouvoirs publics en matière d’information et d’éducation des consommateurs (greenwashing, étiquetage environnemental, éducation des enfants à l’écologie, réduction des suremballages). Elles ont notamment été publiées dans International Journal of Research in Marketing, Journal of Business Ethics et International Journal of Advertising.

Publications

Articles

Monnot E., Reniou F., Parguel B., Elgaaied-Gambier L. (2017), "Thinking Outside the Packaging Box": Should Brands Consider Store Shelf Context When Eliminating Overpackaging?, Journal of Business Ethics, 1

Governmental policies are encouraging companies to reduce the environmental impact of their packaging and particularly overpackaging, which raises a broad range of ethical considerations. However, experiments comparing an overpackaged product with a non-overpackaged product have shown that eliminating overpackaging may have a negative influence on brand image and consumer purchase intention. In this paper, we draw on attribution theory to examine the influence of the absence (vs. presence) of overpackaging on consumers' response, depending on their environmental consciousness and the absence (vs. presence) of overpackaging on the competing product. An experiment conducted on 218 consumers demonstrates that non-overpackaging for a target product only adversely affects purchase intention among non-environmentally conscious consumers when competing products are overpackaged. These results lead to optimistic recommendations for marketing managers and public policy makers to help them solve the ethical dilemma linked to overpackaging.

Cadario R., Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2016), Is bigger always better? The unit effect in carbon emissions information, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 33, 1, p. 204–207

According to Pandelaere et al. (2011), bigger numbers of units in quantitative attribute information lead to greater perceived attribute differences, making it more likely that consumers will choose a higher-attribute option. We replicate this unit effect for the carbon emissions metrics displayed in car advertisements, and extend it to show that highly numerate individuals, who are supposed to be more effective decision-makers, may actually be more prone to numerosity heuristics.

Von Pechmann F., Chamaret C., Parguel B., Midler C. (2016), How to predict the success of disruptive innovations? The case of the electric vehicle, Décisions Marketing, 81, p. 81-98

Prévoir la demande pour une innovation de rupture constitue un véritable défi pour les managers comme pour les chercheurs. Souhaitant le relever, cet article propose un modèle de prévision spatial original, USIDDI (Usercentric SImulation for the Deployment of Disruptive Innovations), fondé sur l'étude de la compatibilité de chaque individu avec l'innovation. L'article utilise le marché du véhicule électrique pour tester empiriquement ce modèle et illustrer la nature des recommandations qu'il permet de formuler à destination des industriels et des décideurs publics pour accélérer le déploiement des innovations de rupture.

Demand forecasting for disruptive innovations is a major challenge for professionals and academics. This article addresses the issue by building an original spatial model, USIDDI (User-centric SImulation for the Deployment of Disruptive Innovations) on the analysis of individuals' compatibility with the innovation. We empirically test the model on the electric vehicle market and emphasize the nature of the recommendations that should be made to companies and governments to accelerate the scaling-up of disruptive innovations.

Mimouni Chaabane A., Parguel B. (2016), The double-edge effect of retailers' cause-related marketing: When scepticism cools the warm-glow effect, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 44, 6, p. 607-626

Purpose - Cause-related marketing - linking product sales with donations to a cause - are popular with consumers because they produce warm-glow feelings (the positive route). But when they involve large donations, they may trigger consumer scepticism, reducing the warm glow (the negative route). Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether large donations in cause-related marketing can produce consumer scepticism and reduce the warm-glow effect and positive attitude towards the retailer. Design/methodology/approach - An experiment varying the donation size (large, medium, small) in a cause-related marketing offer run by an office equipment retailer is set up. Hypotheses are tested using bootstrapping regression analyses. Findings - The negative route has the greater effect: scepticism towards the offer mediates the relationship between donation size and the warm glow. Furthermore, scepticism towards a large donation is higher (lower) for respondents scoring low (high) on altruism and high (low) on familiarity with cause-related marketing. Practical implications - When using cause-related marketing, retailers should choose their features and target audience carefully in order to reduce scepticism, e.g., small donations should be offered in promotions targeting consumers who are familiar with cause-related marketing and show low altruism. Originality/value - This study contributes to the recent research examining the negative effects of cause-related marketing by explicitly conceptualising and measuring scepticism towards cause-related marketing. The findings are also valuable because they indicate the importance of a shift in focus, away from the conventional question of cause-related marketing effectiveness to the more specific and under-investigated problem of the appropriate core target consumers.

Pueschel J., Chamaret C., Parguel B. (2016), Coping with copies: The influence of risk perceptions in luxury counterfeit consumption in GCC countries, Journal of Business Research

This research investigates counterfeit luxury consumption in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, where consumers are so affluent that their consumption of counterfeit goods is surprising. An exploratory quantitative survey conducted in the United Arab Emirates demonstrates that though GCC nationals do purchase counterfeit luxury products, the perceived performance, psychosocial, and moral risks might prevent them from the engagement in such consumption. Based on 19 in-depth interviews, a follow-up qualitative study identifies the strategies Emiratis use to cope with the cognitive dissonance that occurs from the perception of those risks. The findings are of major interest for public policy makers and luxury brand managers fighting counterfeiting.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F., Russell C. (2015), Can evoking nature in advertising mislead consumers? The power of 'executional greenwashing', International Journal of Advertising, 34, 1, p. 107-134

This paper examines the 'executional greenwashing' effect, defined as the use of nature-evoking elements in advertisements to artificially enhance a brand's ecological image. Using classic models of information processing and persuasion, the research tests whether 'executional greenwashing' differs as a function of consumer knowledge about environmental issues in the product category and whether environmental performance information can counterbalance the effect by helping consumers form an accurate evaluation of the brand's ecological image. Three experiments with French consumers reveal that evoking nature does mislead consumers in their evaluation of a brand's ecological image, especially if they have low knowledge of environmental issues. Two indicators of environmental performance, based on current international policies, are tested to counteract 'executional greenwashing'. Whereas a raw figure is not sufficient to help non-expert consumers revise their judgment, accompanying the figure with a traffic-light label eliminates 'executional greenwashing' amongst both experts and non-experts. Theoretical and regulatory implications are discussed.

Monnot E., Parguel B., Reniou F. (2015), Consumer responses to elimination of overpackaging on private label products, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 43, 4/5, p. 329-349

Purpose - Eliminating overpackaging is a central question in sustainable development, and poses a dilemma for retailers. Since packaging is a differentiation tool for private labels, eliminating it could limit the capacity to give those labels an equivalent image to national brands just as much as it could be a sustainable development opportunity and a positioning instrument. Drawing on the attribution theory framework, this article examines how eliminating overpackaging influences consumers' perception of products sold under generic and mimic private labels, and their purchase intention. Methodology - This research uses a 2 (overpackaging: present vs. absent) x 2 (brand concept: generic vs. mimic private label) between-subjects experiment on a convenience sample of 217 French consumers. The conceptual framework was tested using ANCOVA and mediation analyses. Findings - Our experiment shows that eliminating overpackaging does have an influence on mimic private labels' image, particularly on perceived quality, convenience and environmental friendliness. We also find that this influence negatively transfers to purchase intention for mimic private labels through lower perceived quality and convenience. No such effect appears for generic private labels' image. Value - This study addresses an issue as yet unexplored in marketing - the effect of overpackaging on private label products - and proposes areas for managerial and societal reflection relevant to retail chains interested in eliminating overpackaging.

Butori R., Parguel B. (2014), The impact of visual exposure to a physically attractive other on self-presentation, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 31, 4, p. 445-447

According to Roney (2003), when exposed to potential mates (young women), men show greater conformity to female mate preferences. This study conceptually replicates and extends this finding to show that women also respond to female physical attractiveness. When exposed to attractive women (potential rivals), women report higher levels of communion and lower levels of agency.

Cadario R., Parguel B. (2014), Reconsidering the practice of discretizing quantitative variables: Towards a new analysis of moderation in experimental research, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 29, 4, p. 120-140

En recherche expérimentale, les chercheurs en marketing discrétisent souvent les variables quantitatives pour tester leur caractère modérateur. Cet article pédagogique explique les limites d'une telle pratique et illustre les étapes des analyses spotlight et floodlight à conduire suivant que la variable modératrice considérée présente ou non des valeurs focales signifiantes.

In experimental data analysis, marketing researchers are used to discretize the quantitative independent variables to test for their potential moderating effect. From concrete illustrations, this article highlights the limitations of such a practice and aims at presenting the steps of a more appropriate test method.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2011), Building brand equity with environmental communication: an empirical investigation in France, EuroMed Journal of Business, 6, 1, p. 100 - 116

Purpose - Using Keller's brand equity framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the firm's environmental communication on brand equity, and specifically its impact on brand image, through the strength and favourability of brand environmental associations. Design/methodology/approach - A between-subjects experimental design tests the hypotheses with a generalisable sample of 165 French consumers. Findings - Environmental communication positively influences the strength and favourability of brand environmental associations, therefore improving brand equity. Two moderators reinforce the impact of environmental communication on brand equity through the strength of brand environmental associations: the perceived congruence between the brand and the cause, and the perceived credibility of the claim. Practical implications - In the context of greater consumer pressure regarding business ethics, managers should favour environmental arguments in their corporate communication to improve brand image through societal associations. Doing so, they should focus their communication on causes that are congruent with their brands to facilitate brand equity building, and ensure they are credible when proclaiming these arguments. Originality/value - Despite existing research on corporate social responsibility (CSR), no studies focus on the specific impact of CSR communication on brand equity. The paper provides initial empirical evidence about the positive effect of environmental claims on customer-based brand equity.

Larceneux F., Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B. (2011), How Sustainability Ratings Might Deter "Greenwashing": A Closer Look at Ethical Corporate Communication, Journal of Business Ethics, 102, 1, p. 15-28

Of the many ethical corporate marketing practices, many firms use corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication to enhance their corporate image. Yet consumers, overwhelmed by these more or less well-founded CSR claims, often have trouble identifying truly responsible firms. This confusion encourages "greenwashing" and may make CSR initiatives less effective. On the basis of attribution theory, this study investigates the role of independent sustainability ratings on consumers' responses to companies' CSR communication. Experimental results indicate the negative effect of a poor sustainability rating for corporate brand evaluations in the case of CSR communication, because consumers infer less intrinsic motives by the brand. Sustainability ratings thus could act to deter "greenwashing" and encourage virtuous firms to persevere in their CSR practices.

Parguel B., Larceneux F., Benoît-Moreau F. (2010), La communication sociétale : entre opportunités et risques d'opportunisme, Décisions Marketing, 59, p. 75-78

Des voitures réduisant leurs émissions de CO2 aux aliments issus de l'agriculture biologique en passant par une offre de crédits plus responsable, il semble que les arguments sociétaux investissent l'ensemble des messages commerciaux. De telles pratiques de communication sont-elles devenues à ce point indispensables ? Sont-elles toujours bénéfiques ? L'objectif de cet article est de dresser un bilan des stratégies de communication sociétale, d'envisager leurs atouts et d'explorer les risques associés à leur dérive. Cet article rappelle également le débat régulatoire que la généralisation des pratiques de communication sociétale a ouvert au sein du monde de la communication et de la société civile plus largement.

Parguel B., Mimouni A., Sabri O. (2010), Do Store Flyers Need To Be Designed Based on Customer Loyalty?, Décisions Marketing, 59, p. 49-59

Cette étude évalue l'influence de l'attractivité de trois caractéristiques du prospectus - le prix, l'offre et le thème - sur son efficacité pour le distributeur. Les résultats d'une enquête exploratoire menée auprès de 958 individus mettent en évidence des mécanismes d'influence différents en fonction de la fidélité du client. Pour les clients fidèles, l'attractivité perçue des prix au sein du prospectus a un effet positif important sur l'achat de produits promus. Pour les clients occasionnels, la visite de l'enseigne et l'achat de produits promus en prospectus sont influencés directement par l'attractivité perçue des prix et indirectement par l'attractivité perçue du thème du prospectus. Des recommandations sont formulées pour le distributeur afin d'optimiser la conception du prospectus en fonction du profil des clients.

This research investigates the impact of three store flyers' characteristics attractiveness - price, offer and thematic - and their effectiveness for the retailer. An exploratory survey conducted among a sample of 958 shoppers reveals a different impact based on customer loyalty. For loyal customers, the perceived price attractiveness has an important direct positive effect on purchase of promoted products; for occasional customers, purchase of promoted products and store visits are influenced directly by the perceived price attractiveness and indirectly by the evaluation of store flyers thematic. Recommendations for retailers are developed for an optimized management of store flyers' characteristics and design.

Parguel B., Sabri O., Mimouni A. (2010), Competitive advertising within store flyers: A win-win strategy?, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 17, 6, p. 478-486

This study investigates the effect of competitive advertising within store flyers on both manufacturers and retailers. Prior research implies that competitive advertising may be detrimental for manufacturers and beneficial for retailers. Findings from an intersubject experiment that uses various familiar and unfamiliar competing brands confirm that store flyers' competitive advertising improves consumers' perceptions of the variety of the retailer's assortment, which has a positive impact on intentions to visit the store and buy. However, increasing the number of competing brands does not harm manufacturers; rather, it enhances recognition of brands, especially for well-known brands. This article concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and managerial implications of these findings for the design of store flyers.

Delécolle T., Parguel B. (2010), Return to mass marketing fundamentals in the luxury sector : When Mauboussin shows its prices on subway billboards : Interview with Alain Nemarq, Décisions Marketing, 59, p. 79-82

Vieille de plus de 180 ans, la joaillerie Mauboussin fait figure d'enfant terrible sur la Place Vendôme depuis que l'entreprise utilise les codes et outils du marketing de grande consommation dans le secteur du luxe. Alain Nemarq, son Président, revient sur la stratégie marketing qu'il a mise en place depuis son arrivée en 2002. Il détaille ainsi le nouveau modèle de croissance de la Maison et décrypte les campagnes de communication qui lui ont récemment valu d'être taxé de « casseur de codes » sur le marché de la haute joaillerie. Il explique par ailleurs en quoi le fait d'être « un nain » sur ce marché représente à ses yeux un atout considérable.

Over 180 years old, the Mauboussin jeweler's shop looks like a rebellious child on the Place Vendôme (Paris, France) since Dominique Frémont took over almost ten years ago. Alain Nemarq, the President, explains the marketing strategy he has used since his arrival in 2002. He also details the new growth model and gives us the insights to understand the advertising campaigns which recently earned him the title of "rule breaker" on the market of luxury jewelery. Besides, he tells us that the fact of being "a dwarf" on this market represents in his eyes a huge asset.

Sabri O., Parguel B., de Pechpeyrou P. (2008), Benefits and limits of virtual bundling: an exploratory study, Décisions Marketing, 50, p. 49-57

Le coût élevé de mise en oeuvre des techniques promotionnelles traditionnelles amène les distributeurs et les industriels à rechercher de nouveaux formats de promotion, parmi lesquels le lot dit « virtuel ». Après avoir présenté cette technique et ses enjeux, l'article analyse les principaux avantages qu'en retirent les acteurs de la distribution, ainsi que ses contraintes. Il s'interroge dans un second temps sur les réactions des consommateurs face au lot virtuel à l'aide d'une approche qualitative exploratoire. Les facteurs clés de succès de l'implantation du lot virtuel en magasin sont proposés à la suite de ce double éclairage managers et consommateurs.

The high costs associated with traditional promotional techniques lead retailers and industrials to adopt new promotional formats, especially "separate-item bundles". After presenting this promotional format and its managerial stakes, the article first analyzes the advantages and constraints that separate-item bundles present for actors in the retail industry. We next use an exploratory qualitative approach to shed light on consumers' reactions to such a new promotional format. This double focus - on managers and consumers - leads us to propose key success factors for separate-item bundles implementation at the point of purchase.

Sabri O., de Pechpeyrou P., Parguel B., Desmet P. (2007), Format Effects in Volume Discounts to Consumers, The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 16, 5, p. 348-357

PurposeUsing a classification of benefits and costs of promotional offers (Raghubir et al., 2004) along three routes - economic, informational and affective - this paper aims at evaluating, from the consumer's point of view, the relative perceptual disadvantages of separate-item bundles compared to pre-wrapped bundles.Design/methodology/approachThe marketing literature and a qualitative study based on 18 consumers permit us to identify the relative perceived costs and benefits associated with separate-item bundles and to derive hypotheses. An experiment on a sample of 120 adult consumers was then set up to test these hypotheses. FindingsThe findings suggest that consumers associate separate-item bundles with higher economic benefit but also with higher inspection costs. From a more global perspective, there is no loss of interest in separate-item bundles compared to pre-wrapped bundles.Research limitations/implicationsFocusing our research on separate-item bundles clarifies the way consumers evaluate promotions. Its qualitative phase gives support to the relevance of an "informational route" (Raghubir et al., 2004), beyond the traditional utilitarian and hedonic routes (Chandon et al., 2000). Its quantitative phase confirms the importance of cognitive biases in consumers' perceptions of promotions.Practical implicationsThe numerous advantages of separate-item bundles for manufacturers and retailers and their attraction to consumers should lead to an increasingly intensive use in promotional campaigns. Besides, the quality of in-store communication is the most important factor of the success of separate-item bundles, which provides the opportunity to propose meaningful recommendations for practitioners.Originality/value of paperIf the strengths and weaknesses of separate-item bundles have already been studied from a managerial point of view, to our knowledge, no research has focused on separate-item bundle efficiency from the consumer's point of view.

Parguel B. (2007), Le marché test en conditions réelles, portées et limites pour l'étude du lancement de nouveaux produits. Entretien avec Laurent Battais, Décisions Marketing, 47, p. 97-100

Laurent Battais est directeur Général de MarketingScan, filiale commune de Médiamétrie et de GfK. Créée en 1994 dans l'objectif de développer un dispositif unique de mesure des actions marketing en conditions réelles. MarketingScan développe aujourd'hui trois expertises : les marchés test, la mesure de l'efficacité publicitaire sur les ventes et l'analyse du comportement du shopper sur le point de vente.

Desmet P., Mimouni A., Parguel B., de Pechpeyrou P. (2006), Valeur et sincérité perçues d'une promotion multi-mécanismes, Recherche et applications en marketing, 21, 4, p. 25-40

Une promotion multi-mécanismes associe dans la même communication plusieurs mécanismes promotionnels. L'efficacité relative de ce type de promotions sur les choix du consommateur dépend de deux effets antagonistes. D'une part, la théorie des prospects postule un effet direct positif de la superposition des mécanismes sur la valeur perçue de la promotion car le consommateur valorise davantage une offre présentant les gains de manière séparée (principe de ségrégation). D'autre part, la superposition des mécanismes pourrait réduire indirectement cette valeur perçue à travers une moindre sincérité perçue. Une expérimentation inter-sujets portant sur 210 adultes et proposant un nombre variable de mécanismes monétaires pour une valeur constante de l'offre montre que la promotion mono-mécanisme est préférée. Des implications managériales sont proposées concernant les nouveaux instruments de promotion qui utilisent fréquemment des opérations multi-mécanismes associant industriels et distributeurs.

A multi-mechanism promotion includes in the same communication several promotional techniques. The relative efficiency of this kind of promotion on consumers' choices depends upon two antagonist effects. On the one hand, prospect theory predicts a positive direct influence of multiple mechanisms on perceived value of the promotion, since consumers prefer gains that are presented separately (segregation principle). On the other hand, increasing the number of mechanisms should have an indirect negative effect on perceived value through reduced perceived trustworthiness. A between-subjects experimentation on 210 adult consumers is conducted, with a varying number of promotional mechanisms for a constant monetary saving. Results of the experiment show that promotions with only one mechanism are preferred. Managerial implications are developed, concerning multi-mechanism promotions organized by industrials and retailers.

Ouvrages

Delecolle T., Kamin R., Parguel B., Yemen G. (2013), Mauboussin Japan: A French Gem in Asia, Charlottesville, VA, Darden Business Publishing, 18 p. p.

As marketers love to teach students, differentiation must be the focal point of marketing strategy. But what happens when a firm's competitive set is shared by similar customers, perceived differentiation is weak among rivals, and loyalty is a thing of the past? This was the dilemma the French luxury jeweler Mauboussin faced: how to leverage its iconic brand to access new customers, domestically and abroad, and through new channels, while preserving the image of luxury goods founded on the myth of rarity and exclusivity? The case was designed and used for the latter portion of an international MBA marketing course and would work well in most international business courses.

Chapitres d'ouvrage

Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B. (2016), De la publicité verte au greenwashing : cinquante nuances de vert entre vice et vertu, in Nogatchewsky G., Perret V. (dir.), L'état des entreprises 2016, Paris, La Découverte, p. 9-20

A l'heure où la COP21 (21e conférence des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques) vient de réunir à Paris 190 pays avec l'ambition d'"aboutir, pour la première fois, à un accord universel et contraignant", la question de la lutte contre le dérèglement climatique n'a jamais été aussi brûlante. Historiquement envisagée sous un angle technique, considérant qu'il incombe aux industriels de développer une offre de produits et services plus respectueuse de l'environnement, elle intègre la responsabilité des consommateurs depuis la déclaration de Rio de 1992. La consommation responsable, définie comme "une consommation de biens et de services qui satisfait les besoins élémentaires et améliore la qualité de vie, tout en minimisant l'exploitation des ressources naturelles, l'emploi de matériaux toxiques et les émissions de déchets et de substances polluantes tout au long du cycle de vie des produits et des services consommés" (symposium d'Oslo, 1994), est aujourd'hui envisagée comme une priorité dans la lutte contre le dérèglement climatique.

Parguel B. (2010), Communication sociétale et communication responsable, in Lavorata L. (dir.), 50 fiches sur le marketing durable, Bréal

Communication sociétale et communication responsable sont les deux manifestations du developpement durable dans la politique de communication des entreprises. La première se définit en référence au contenu de la communication, quand la seconde se définit davantage en référence au processus même de la communication.

Parguel B. (2010), Exemples de communication et communications exemplaires, in Lavorata L. (dir.), 50 fiches sur le marketing durable, Paris?, Bréal, p. 128-131

L'ambition de cette fiche est d'analyser des exemples concrets de communications sociétales dans différents secteurs (ex. les produits "à risques", les cosmétiques, l'automobile) et d'identifier un certain nombre de bonnes pratiques en la matière. Cette fiche montre finalement que les bonnes pratiques en matière de communication sociétale dépendent généralement du secteur que l'on considère.

Parguel B. (2010), La régulation des campagnes de communication, in Lavorata L. (dir.), 50 fiches sur le marketing durable, Paris?, Bréal, p. 138-143

Faut-il reconnaitre une incompatibilité entre publicité et développement durable ? Entre la liberté de l'entreprise, sa liberté de communication en particulier, et le respect des citoyens et de l'environnement, quelle régulation mettre en place ? Telles sont les questions auxquelles nous allons chercher à répondre dans cette fiche.

Parguel B. (2010), Le marketing direct responsable, in Lavorata L. (dir.), 50 fiches sur le marketing durable, Paris?, Bréal, p. 144-147

Le marketing direct rassemble les techniques de communication et de vente à des individus (particuliers et entreprises) identifiés dans des fichiers : mailing, catalogue, télémarketing, e-mailing, etc. Poser la question de la responsabilité des campagnes de marketing direct invite à mesurer l'impact environnemental de ces campagnes, afin d'en tenir compte dans toutes les décisions qui s'y rapportent.

Parguel B. (2010), Un exemple spécifique de collaboration : Le produit-partage, in Lavorata L. (dir.), 50 fiches sur le marketing durable, Paris?, Bréal, p. 154-157

Qu'est ce qu'une opération de produit-partage ? Quels en sont les objectifs et les limites ? et quelles sont les recommandations à suivre avant d'y recourir ? Voilà les questions auxquelles cette fiche se propose de répondre.

Larceneux F., Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B. (2009), Comment prévenir le greenwhashing ? L'influence des éléments d'exécution publicitaire, in Pras B. (dir.), Management : tensions d'aujourd'hui (Tome I), Vuibert : FNEGE, p. 365-376

Cette recherche examine l'influence de trois éléments d'exécution publicitaire (l'usage de la couleur verte, du mot « durable » et la présence d'un label écologique auto-décerné) sur les perceptions des consommateurs en matière de sincérité perçue de la publicité, d'image écologique et d'attitude envers le produit et l'annonceur. Une expérimentation menée sur 640 consommateurs représentatifs de la population française montre que les répondants se laissent peu tromper par les pratiques de greenwashing. Chez les consommateurs experts, aucune des trois pratiques n'exerce d'influence positive. Chez les non-experts, seul le label présente un fort effet positif.

Communications

Parguel B., Lunardo R., Benoît-Moreau F. (2016), La collaboration entre consommateurs est-elle toujours vertueuse pour l'environnement ? Le cas des plateformes d'achat d'occasion, AFM Congress, Lyon, France

Parguel B., Audrezet A. (2016), What does this central point stand for? Exploration of a new tool for distinguishing ambivalence from uncertainty, Emerging Trends in Marketing and Management, Bucharest, Romania

Companies are fond of global evaluations. After each online purchase or service e experience, customers are often asked to assess what they have paid for on bipolar rating scales. However, the literature on methodology reveals serious problems related to the mid point displayed on such continuums (e.g. Kaplan 1972; Thompson et al. 199 5). Actually, this mid-point inappropriate l y aggregates uncertain responses (difficult evaluation) with ambivalent (a combination of moderate to high positivity and negativity) or indifferent (low positivity and negativity) ones, when these different responses reflect different attitudes and drive distinct behaviors (Thornton 2011; Yoo 2010). The 5×5 Evaluative Space Grid (ESG), developed in psychology by Larsen and colleagues (2009) to measure both the degree of positivity and negativity of a stimulus, could help address this methodologica l issue. Based on both a qualitative and a quantitative explorations, we show that the ESG actually allows disentangling those different types of evaluations along its diagonal. Concretely, we showed that respondents' involvement toward the evaluated object increases along the diagonal while their certainty in their responses increases on both sides departing from the mid-point: the zone at the bottom left of the diagonal gathers indifferent reactions, the zone on the upper right area of the diagonal more ambivalent reactions, uncertain reactions are collected in the middle of the diagonal, providing the opportunity to "avoid making a choice". This research provides important theoretical and methodological contributions. It theoretically clarifies the attitudinal literature regarding the evaluations usually inappropriately aggregated on the mid-point of bipolar scales and offers a tool to measure them. From a managerial point of view, this research provides a tool for practitioners who wish to understand what lies behind average performances. More precisely, the distinction between the three types of neutral evaluations enables one to distinguish between informative and uninformative evaluations.

Mimouni -Chaabane A., Parguel B. (2016), The double-edge effect of donation size in retailers charity promotions: When scepticism cools the warm-glow effect, Public Policy & Marketing Conference, San Luis Obispo, United States

Audrezet A., Parguel B. (2016), Square but straight: Measurement tool design to improve response task fluency and certainty, European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, London, United Kingdom

The assessment of overall customer satisfaction is an important issue in market research (Haumann et al. 2014, Homburg et al. 2014). After each online purchase, customers are asked to assess the product or service for which they have paid, usually on a five-point rating scales (e.g., Amazon, Trip Advisor). Comparable to bipolar scales, these tools are effective in making a distinction between polarized evaluations (i.e., either strong positivity or strong negativity). However, the literature on methodology reveals serious problems related to the mid-point displayed on these continuums (Kaplan 1972, Thompson et al. 1995). Actually, this mid-point inappropriately aggregates uncertain responses (difficult evaluation) with ambivalent (a combination of moderate to high positivity and negativity) or indifferent (low positivity and negativity) ones, when these different responses have been shown to reflect different attitudes and drive distinct behavioral responses (Yoo 2010, Thornton 2011). The Evaluative Space Grid (hereafter, ESG), developed in psychology by Larsen and colleagues (2009), could help address part of this methodological issue. The ESG comprises a 5×5 grid that measures both the degree of positivity of a stimulus and its degree of negativity within a bidimensional matrix. One dimension of the matrix is dedicated to the measurement of the respondent's degree of negativity ("not at all negative" - "extremely negative"), its degree of positivity ("not at all positive" - "extremely positive"). The combination of the two dimensions allows the respondent to choose which of the grid's 25 cells best describes its evaluation. The ESG has been validated in psychology with respect to unipolar measurement of positivity and negativity (Larsen et al. 2009). Applying the ESG in a service marketing context, Audrezet et al., (forthcoming) have recently demonstrated its relevance to measure overall customer satisfaction. Regarding the practical implementation of ESG, Larsen and colleagues (2009) formulate 2-minute generic instructions before using the ESG, which include the presence of an experimenter to accompany the respondents in their task. However, they do not discuss the extent to which the grid could be easy to use in self-administered surveys. Based on a rapid qualitative study we assume that the ESG could hinder response task fluency, which could negatively affect response certainty (Regier et al. 2014). This, in turn, could potentially be very detrimental to market research as response certainty is a crucial determinant of data and prediction quality (Fazio and Zanna 1978, Antil 1983). The present article builds on previous research to investigate the influence of different formats of the ESG on response task fluency and certainty. To do so, an experiment specifically manipulating the ESG dimension and the presence of verbal labels in the cells was conducted on a sample of 105 undergraduate students. We demonstrate that the use of verbal labels, rather than a reduction in response alternatives, is a promising way to increase response task fluency and, in turn, improve individuals' response certainty. This work advocates for tool design reflection to create responding behavior incentives and reduce survey drop-out rates which is especially challenging within self-administered electronic settings.

Parguel B., Agogué m., Cassotti M., Hooge S. (2016), Nudging creativity: The effect of priming on individual ideation, EMAC Conference, Oslo, Norway

Creative thinking is not always a flawless process and obstacles can constrain the ability of individuals, teams and firms to formulate innovative proposals. Many methodologies have been proposed to enhance creative capabilities in organizations, yet their efficiency usually requires the investment of many resources. Building on the notion of nudge, this paper aims at exploring frugal strategies to stimulate creative ideation in the early phases of product development. We conducted an experiment to explore the potential nudging of creativity during an ideation session. We show that labelling individuals as being very creative has a performative impact on the type of ideas produced by individuals

Charry K., Parguel B., Bourjot -Deparis J. (2016), Social labeling as a motivator to preadolescents proenvironmental behaviors: Theoretical explanation to the moderating effect of age through self-concept clarity, Public Policy & Marketing Conference, San Luis Obispo, United States

Parguel B., Lunardo R., Benoît-Moreau F. (2016), Sustainability of collaborative consumption in question: When second-hand P2P platforms stimulate green consumers' impulse buying and overconsumption, Public Policy & Marketing Conference, San Luis Obispo, United States

Chamaret C., Pueschel j., Parguel B. (2016), Coping with copies! A study of risks perception and coping strategies in luxury counterfeit consumption among affluent consumers, Monaco Symposium on Luxury, Monaco, France

This research explores why affluent Emiratis would consume counterfeit luxury products. A fist exploratory quantitative study confirms that Emiratis do purchase counterfeit luxury products ans shows that they associate important performance ans psychosocial risks with counterfeit consumption. Based on 19 in dept interviews, a follow-up qualitative study confirms the prception of performance and psychosocial risks and identifies strategies Emiratis apply to cope with the cognitive dissonance that accors from the perception of these risks. The findings are of major interest for local public policy makers fighting counterfeiting

Parguel B., Lunardo R., Benoît-Moreau F. (2016), Sustainability of collaborative consumption in question: When second-hand P2P platforms stimulate green consumers' impulse buying and overconsumption, 2nd International Workshop on The Sharing Economy, Paris, France

Pueschel j., Chamaret C., Parguel B. (2016), Coping with copies! A study of risks perception and coping strategies in luxury counterfeit consumption among affluent consumers, Atlas- AFMI Conference, Nice, France

This research explores why affluent Emiratiswould consume counterfeit luxury products. A first exploratory quantitative study confirms that Emiratis do purchase counterfait luxury products and shows that they associate important performance and psychosocial risks wtih counterfeit consumption. Based on 19 in-dept interviews, a follow-up qualitative study confirms the perception of performance and psychosocial risk and study confirms the perception of performance and psychosocial risks and identifies strategies Emiratis apply to cope with the cognitive dissonance that accurs from the perception of these risks. The findings are of major interest for local policy makers fighting counterfeiting.

Elgaaied L., Monnot E., Parguel B., Reniou F. (2016), With or without you: Is it worthwhile for a brand to eliminate overpackaging? New insights from context effects, EMAC Conference, Oslo, NORWAY

Previous experiments underlined the impact overpack-aging elimination on brand image and purchase intention. However, these experiments did not consider the potential effects of competitors' strategies in terms of overpackaging when evaluating the impact of a target brand decision to eliminate overpackaging. Based on context effects and attribution theory, the present paper shows that the influence of verpackaging elimination on consumers' response may depend on the absence vs. presence of overpackaging on the competing product. An experiment conducted among 218 consumers reveals that eliminating verpackaging can lead to a decrease in consumers' intention to buy the product but this negative impact is no longer true: (1) when competitors are also getting rid of overpackaging; (2) among consumers that are highly concerned about the environment.

Elgaaied L., Monnot E., Parguel B., Reniou F. (2016), Les marques ont-elles intérêt à se débarrasser de leurs suremballages ? Analyse des effets de contexte, AFM Congress, lyon, FRANCE

Charry K., Bourjot-Deparis J., Parguel B. (2015), I've been told I'm good and I love to do as I'm told : When Social Labeling Induces Lasting Pro- Environmental Behaviors in Tweens via a Simple Process, Public Policy & Marketing Conference, Washington, United States

Cadario R., Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F., Thiard A. (2015), Framing effects for Co2 emissions metrics in car advertisements, Public Policy & Marketing Conference, Washington, United States

Dans cette recherche, nous etudions l'effet de cadrage pour differentes unites de mesure pour les echelles d'emissions de carbon dans le cadre des publicites pour voitures. Les resultats de trois etudes experimentales montrent que les consommateurs focalisent leur attention sur les information de premier plan (e.g. g in g/km) par rapport aux informations de second plan (e.g. km in g/km). En retour, les consommateurs souffrent d'un biais de cadrage de telle sorte qu'ils percoivent des chiffres plus grand comme une expression d'une quantite plus importante. Nous discutons des contributions theoriques issues de nos resultats ainsi que des implications pour les pouvoirs publiques.

In this article, we examine the framing effects for CO2 emission metrics (i.e., units of measurement) in car advertisements. Three studies consistently show that consumers pay more attention to foreground (e.g. g in g/km) than background information (e.g. km in g/km), and suffer from a "numerosity" framing bias such that they perceive bigger numbers as an expression of bigger quantities. We discuss both theoretical and regulatory implications of these results.

Agogué M., Cassotti M., Hooge S., Parguel B. (2015), Nudging creativity: The effect of priming on individual ideation, ANZMAC Conference, Sydney, Austria

Creative thinking is not always a flawless process and obstacles can constrain the ability of individuals, teams and firms to formulate innovative proposals. Many methodologies have been proposed to enhance creative capabilities in organizations, yet their efficiency usually requires the investment of many resources. Building on the notion of nudge, this paper aims at exploring frugal strategies to stimulate creative ideation in the early phases of product development. We conducted an experiment to explore the potential nudging of creativity during an ideation session. We show that labelling individuals as being very creative has a performative impact on the type of ideas produced by individuals

Cadario R., Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2015), Is bigger always better? The unit effect in carbon emissions information, ANZMAC Conference, Sydney, Australia

According to Pandelaere et al. (2011), bigger numbers of units in quantitative attribute information lead to greater perceived attribute differences, making it more likely that consumers will switch to a higher-attribute option. We replicate this "unit effect" for the carbon emissions metrics displayed in car advertisements, and extend it to show that highly numerate individuals, who are supposed to be more effective decision-makers, may actually be more prone to numerosity heuristics.

Mimouni-Chaabane A., Parguel B. (2015), Le chemin vers l'enfer est pavé de bonnes intentions: Est - ce que le scepticisme réduit l'évaluation des produits partage?, AFM Congress, Marrakech, Morocco

Si les travaux conduits sur les produits partage - produits sur lesquels un montant du prix est preleve et reverse a une ONG - etudient generalement leurs effets positifs sur les perceptions et evaluations des consommateurs, la presente recherche explore leur influence sur le scepticisme des consommateurs. Les resultats issus d'une etude pilote et de deux etudes principales suggerent que les produits partage peuvent etre associes a une forme de scepticisme structurel, parce qu'ils generent chez les consommateurs des inferences de motivations externes de la part de l'entreprise recourant a l'offre d'une promotion sous forme de produit partage. De plus, l'importance du don a l'ONG augmente les motivations externes percues, deteriorant au passage l'evaluation de l'offre par les consommateurs, et eleve le scepticisme des consommateurs presentant une forte sensibilite societale.

While most previous research on charity promotions - donation of a certain amount of the purchase price of a product to a specific cause - has focused on their positive effects on consumers' perceptions and evaluations, the present research examines skepticism as a possible negative outcome. Findings from a pilot study and two main studies suggest that charity pro- motions foster skepticism as a market state, due to the extrinsic inferred firm's motives they prompt. Furthermore, a high donation magnitude increases extrinsic firm's motives, which in turn hinders the evaluation of the promotion. Finally, high donation magnitude is associated with more skepticism, but only for consumers displaying low levels of societal consciousness.

Bourjot-Deparis J., Charry K., Parguel B. (2015), I was told I care about nature : social labeling to encourage responsible behaviors in tweens, AFM Congress, Marrakech, Morocco

Ce travail traite de l'efficacite de l'etiquetage social sur la promotion de comportements pro- environnementaux chez les enfants. Une experimentation realisee sur des eleves de primaire a montre que 1 / les enfants exposes a l'etiquetage declarent des comportements plus favorables a l'environnement et que 2 / les enfants d'un age intermediaire (entre 9,5 et 11,5 ans) sont les plus influencables par la technique, ce qui sous-tend une relation en U inverse entre l'efficacite de l'etiquetage et l'age des enfants. Ces resultats contribuent a une meilleure comprehension theorique de l'etiquetage social et ont des implications en termes de politique publique.

We study the effectiveness of social labeling to promote pro-environmental behaviors in children, and examine more specifically the moderating effect of children's age. We run an experiment on 3rd to 6th grade children and show that 1/ children exposed to a social labeling declare more pro-environmental behaviors and that 2/ children at an intermediate age (between 9,5 and 11,5) are the most responsive to the technique, underlying an inverted-U relationship between social labeling effectiveness and children's age. These results contribute to a better theoretical understanding of social labeling and suggest implications for public policy makers.

Cadario R., Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F., Thiard A. (2015), I was told I care about nature : social labeling to encourage responsible behaviors in tweens, AFM Congress, Marrakech, Morocco

Dans cette recherche, nous etudions l'effet de cadrage pour differentes unites de mesure pour les echelles d'emissions de carbon dans le cadre des publicites pour voitures. Les resultats de trois etudes experimentales montrent que les consommateurs focalisent leur attention sur les information de premier plan (e.g. g in g/km) par rapport aux informations de second plan (e.g. km in g/km). En retour, les consommateurs souffrent d'un biais de cadrage de telle sorte qu'ils percoivent des chiffres plus grand comme une expression d'une quantite plus importante. Nous discutons des contributions theoriques issues de nos resultats ainsi que des implications pour les pouvoirs publiques.

In this article, we examine the framing effects for CO2 emission metrics (i.e., units of measurement) in car advertisements. Three studies consistently show that consumers pay more attention to foreground (e.g. g in g/km) than background information (e.g. km in g/km), and suffer from a "numerosity" framing bias such that they perceive bigger numbers as an expression of bigger quantities. We discuss both theoretical and regulatory implications of these results.

Parguel B., Chamaret C. (2015), "Lost in translation": Expatriate consumers' acculturation to the market of luxury products, Atlas-AFMI Conference, Hanoi, Viêt Nam

Agogué M., Cassotti M., Hooge S., Parguel B. (2015), Nudging creativity: The effect of priming on individual ideation, Innovation & Product Development Management Conference, Copenhague, Denmark

Creative thinking is not always a flawless process and obstacles can constrain the ability of individuals, teams and firms to formulate innovative proposals. Many methodologies have been proposed to enhance creative capabilities in organizations, yet their efficiency usually requires the investment of many resources. Building on the notion of nudge, this paper aims at exploring frugal strategies to stimulate creative ideation in the early phases of product development. We conducted an experiment to explore the potential nudging of creativity during an ideation session. We show that labelling individuals as being very creative has a performative impact on the type of ideas produced by individuals

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2015), Counterproductive Environmental Performance Displays: Lessons From the Automotive Sector,, UNITED STATES

This paper mobilizes classical models of information processing and persuasion (ELM) to examine the efficiency of a European Directive 1999/94/EC of December, 13, 1999 regarding automotive carbon emission information to convert consumers to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This Directive states that European carmakers have to prominently display their vehicles' carbon emissions rate on advertisement or commercial brochures. Based on an experiment conducted on a representative sample of French consumers, the authors show that this obligation, far from guiding consumers' choice toward environment-friendly vehicles, is ineffective, and even counterproductive, among non-expert consumers. They show that the display of environmental information should rather take a colored A-G scale to guide non-expert consumers towards sustainable consumption behaviors. The authors finally discuss implications for public policy makers.

Parguel B., Delécolle T., Valette-Florence P. (2014), Effet de l'affichage du prix sur les perceptions « luxe » des marques, 17ème Colloque International Etienne Thil, Paris, France

A partir de deux études expérimentales, ce document examine l'impact de l'affichage des prix dans le secteur du luxe sur le caractère luxueux perçu de la marque et l'attitude envers la marque. A partir d'un échantillon d'étudiants, l'étude 1 montre que l'affichage des prix dans la vitrine du point de vente améliore la qualité, l'unicité et le caractère ostentatoire perçus d'une marque de luxe fictive. L'étude 2, réalisée sur un échantillon plus large de consommateurs et deux marques de luxe réelles, confirme l'effet positif de l'affichage des prix sur le caractère ostentatoire perçu de la marque, et montre qu'il se transfère à l'attitude envers la marque. Ce travail enrichit la littérature existante en marketing du luxe et éclaire les gestionnaires de marques de luxe sur les effets de l'affichage des prix.

Based on two experimental studies, this paper investigates the impact of price display in the luxury sector on perceived brand luxury and brand attitude. Using a sample of students, Study1 shows that price display is associated with higher perceived quality, uniqueness, and conspicuousness for a fictitious luxury brand presented in a store window. Using two real luxury brands and a larger sample of consumers, Study 2 confirms the positive effect of price display on the brand's perceived conspicuousness, and shows that this transfers to brand attitude. This paper adds value to the existing literature in luxury marketing and provides insights for managers of luxury brands on the effects of price display.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F., Russell C. (2014), Can Evoking Nature In Advertising Mislead Consumers? The Power of 'executional Greenwashing', 43rd EMAC Annual Conference, Valencia, Spain

'Executional greenwashing' refers to the use of nature-evoking elements in advertisements to artificially enhance a brand's ecological image. Based on classic models of persuasion, a first experiment reveals that evoking nature does mislead consumers, especially if they have low knowledge of environmental issues in the product category. Two complimentary experiments, based on current international policies, show that whereas a raw figure featuring the product objective environmental performance is not sufficient to help non-expert consumers revise their judgment, accompanying the figure with a traffic-light label eliminates the 'executional greenwashing' effect amongst both experts and non-experts. Theoretical and regulatory implications are discussed.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F., Russell C. (2014), Investigating Potential Misleading Effects of Executional Cues in Marketing, AMA 2014 Marketing & Public Policy Conference, Boston, MA, États-Unis

This paper examines the 'executional greenwashing' effect, i.e. the use of nature-evoking elements in advertisements to artificially enhance a brand's ecological image. Theoretical and regulatory implications are discussed.

Bourjot-Deparis J., Charry K., Parguel B. (2014), Social labeling to improve children's ecological behaviors, AMA 2014 Marketing & Public Policy Conference, Boston, MA, États-Unis

Bourjot-Deparis J., Charry k., Parguel B. (2014), Is there a time to turn "green"? Effectiveness of social labeling in promoting preadolescents' pro-environmental behaviors, ICORIA, Amsterdam, Netherlands

We study the effectiveness of "social labeling" to promote pro-environmentalbehaviors in preadolescents, and examine the moderating effect of age. We run an experiment on 115 preadolescents and show that (1) tweens exposed to a social labeling declare more pro-environmental behaviors, (2) those behavioral concerns are sustained over an extended period of time, and (3) preadolescents between 9.5 and 11.5 year-old are the most responsive to the technique, underlying an inverted-U relationship between social labeling effectiveness and age. Referring to previous research on children, persuasion knowledge and social labeling, we propose theoretical explanations and (responsible) managerial implications.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F., Russell C. (2014), Can Evoking Nature In Advertising mislead Consumers? the Power of 'executional Greenwashing, EMAC Conference, Valence, Spain

'Executional greenwashing' refers to the use of nature-evoking elements in dvertisements to artificially enhance a brand's ecological image. Based on classic models of persuasion, a first experiment reveals that evoking nature does mislead consumers, especially if they have low knowledge of environmental issues in the product category. Two complimentary experiments, based on current international policies, show that whereas a raw figure featuring the product objective environmental performance is not sufficient to help non-expert consumers revise their judgment, accompanying the figure with a traffic-light label eliminates the 'executional greenwashing' effect amongst both experts and non-experts. Theoretical and regulatory implications are discussed.

Bourjot-Deparis J., Charry K., Parguel B. (2014), The right age to feel green - Age as a moderator of social labeling influence on children's pro-environmental behaviors, Global Marketing Conference, Singapour, Singapore

Delecolle T., Kamin R., Parguel B., Yemen G. (2014), Mauboussin Japon : Un joyau français en Asie, Atlas-AFMI Conférence, Aix en Provence, France

La différenciation est de manière courante le mantra de la stratégie marketing. Mais comment l'entreprise réagit-elle lorsque la segmentation de son périmètre de marché devient un ensemble flou, que la différenciation de ses produits et de sa marque perd de son attrait ; enfin, que la fréquence d'achat et la fidélité du consommateur appartiennent au passé ? Telle est la situation à laquelle le joailler de luxe de la place Vendôme se trouve confronté. Pourquoi et comment Mauboussin doit-il et peut-il tirer parti de sa marque emblématique pour accéder à de nouveaux clients, en France et à l'étranger, à travers de nouveaux canaux, tout en préservant l'image de ses produits de luxe, fondée sur le mythe de la rareté et de l'exclusivité ?

Parguel B., Delecolle T., Valette- Florence P. (2014), The impact of price display on perceptions of luxury: a masstige perspective, Monaco Symposium on Luxury, Monaco, France

Based on two experimental studies in which college students participated, this paper investigates the impact of price display in the luxury sector on low-end brands perceived luxury and attitude. In Study 1, we show that price display is associated with higher perceived quality, uniqueness, and conspicuousness for a fictitious low-end brand. In Study 2, we confirm this positive influence for a real low-end brand, and show that it transfers to brand attitude through perceived quality and conspicuousness. In addition, Study 2 indicates no negative effect of price display on perceptions of luxury for a higher level brand. In a pioneering attempt to evaluate the effects of price display in the luxury sector, this paper adds value to the body of literature on luxury brand management. Besides, it provides insight to managers of luxury brands of different range levels on the effects of price display, a practice that develops as more and more luxury companies engage in masstige strategies or open commercial websites.

Monnot E., Parguel B., Reniou F. (2014), Réponses des consommateurs à la suppression des suremballages sur les MDD, 17ème Colloque International Etienne Thil, Paris, FRANCE

La suppression du suremballage de leurs MDD offre-t-elle aux enseignes un outil de positionnement responsable sans conséquence sur leur intention d'achat ? S'appuyant sur la théorie de l'attribution, cette recherche montre par le biais d'une expérimentation conduite sur 217 répondants français que la suppression du suremballage améliore effectivement le caractère écologique perçu des MDD classiques, mais qu'elle détériore globalement leur intention d'achat via l'effet médiateur de leurs qualité et praticité perçues. Elle n'a toutefois pas d'influence sur l'intention d'achat des MDD économiques.

Could eliminating overpackaging from private labels be a lever for a responsible positioning without any effect on purchase intention? Drawing on the attribution theory framework, this research uses an experiment on 217 French respondents and shows that eliminating overpackaging does have an influence on mimic private labels' ecological image, but damages their purchase intention through the mediating effect of perceived quality and convenience. It has however no influence on generic private labels' purchase intention.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F., Russell C. (2014), The insidious power of 'Executional Greenwashing': An experimental evidence of the misleading effect of nature imagery in advertising, Global Marketing Conference, Singapour, Singapore

Benoît-Moreau F., Larceneux F., Monnot E., Parguel B., Reniou F. (2014), Recherche et implications en marketing : l'intégration du développement durable, AFM Congress, Montpellier, FRANCE

Cet article étudie l'intégration du développement durable dans les implications des recherches francophones en marketing, au travers d'une analyse textuelle menée sur les communications de cinq Congrès récents de l'AFM, et d'une interprétation fondée sur la sociologie de Bourdieu. Une discussion sur l'évolution du champ de la recherche en marketing vient clore ce travail.

This article explores the diffusion of sustainable development within the implications of French speaking marketing research through a textual analysis of five recent AFM Congresses proceedings and through an interpretation based on Bourdieu's sociological framework. It ends up with a discussion about the evolution of marketing research.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2013), The power of 'executional greenwashing'. Evidence from the automotive sector, La Londe Conference in Marketing Communications and Consumer Behavior, La Londe les Maures, France

Using classical models of information processing and persuasion, this study examines two interdependent issues regarding 'executional greenwashing'. First, it questions the efficiency of executional elements evoking nature to artificially enhance the brand's ecological image. Second, it studies the potential efficiency of environmental performance labels to help consumers form an accurate evaluation of the brand's ecological image and counterbalance this specific type of greenwashing. An experiment conducted with a representative sample of French consumers reveals the efficiency of greenwashing to mislead consumers in their evaluation of brand ecological image, whatever their degree of environmental expertise. Furthermore, the display of environmental performance labels is not enough to help consumers to revise their judgment, even expert ones. Precisely, environmental performance labels are efficient to guide brands' perceptions but only among expert consumers, and only in neutral advertising setting: they are not sufficient to counterbalance greenwashing. The authors discuss theoretical and regulatory implications.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2013), The power of "executional greenwashing". Evidence from the automotive sector, La Londe Conference, La Londe, France

Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B. (2013), Counterproductive Environmental Performance Displays: Lessons from the Automotive Sector, EMAC, 42nd annual conference : "Lost in translation : marketing in an interconnected world", Istanbul, Turquie

Using classical models of information processing and persuasion, this study examines the efficiency of European Directive 1999/94/EC, pertaining to automotive carbon emission information, as a means to encourage more sustainable consumption patterns. The Directive requires European carmakers to display their vehicles' carbon emissions prominently in advertisements. An experiment conducted with a representative sample of consumers reveals that this obligation is counterproductive among non-expert consumers. The display of environmental information might have better effects if it were to use a color-coded grading scale to help them. Beyond this recommendation, the authors discuss some implications for public policy makers.

Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B. (2013), Counterproductive environmental performance displays : Lessons from the automotive sector, AMS Conference, Monterey, UNITED STATES

Using classical models of information processing and persuasion, this study examines the efficiency of European Directive 1999/94/EC, pertaining to automotive carbon emission information, as a means to encourage more sustainable consumption patterns. The Directive requires European carmakers to display their vehicles' carbon emissions prominently in advertisements. An experiment conducted with a representative sample of consumers reveals that this obligation is counterproductive among non-expert consumers. The display of environmental information might have better effects if it were to use a color-coded grading scale to help them. Beyond this recommendation, the authors discuss some implications for public policy makers.

Lunardo R., Parguel B., Chebat J-C. (2012), Warning Young Adults Against Tobacco Consumption Through Ad Parodies : its Effects on Cigarette Brands Attitude, EMAC : 41st annual conference, Lisbonne, Portugal

This paper compares the effects of anti-tobacco ad parodies and visual cigarette package warnings on emotional and cognitive responses of young adults. The findings indicate that graphic-only ad parodies can compete with warnings in their attempt to damage consumers' attitude toward tobacco brands through the health beliefs they lead consumers to associate to the brand. On the contrary, text-only ad parodies prove counterproductive and lead to a boomerang effect characterized by an increase in consumers' tobacco brand attitude.

Parguel B., Lunardo R., Chebat J-C. (2012), Effects of Anti-Tobacco Brands Ad Parodies on Cigarette Brands Attitude, Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference : Marketing Dynamism & Sustainability, Things Change, Things Stay the Same..., New Orleans, LA, États-Unis

This paper compares the effects of anti-tobacco ad parodies and visual cigarette package warnings on emotional and cognitive responses of young adults. The findings indicate that graphic-only ad parodies can compete with warnings in their attempt to damage consumers' attitude toward tobacco brands through the health beliefs they lead consumers to associate to the brand. On the contrary, text-only ad parodies prove counterproductive and lead to a boomerang effect characterized by an increase in consumers' tobacco brand attitude.

Delecolle T., Kamin R., Parguel B. (2012), Mauboussin Japan: the international entry mode of a fashion luxury French jewelry firm, NACRA 2012 Annual Meeting, Boston, United States

Benoît-Moreau F., Bonnemaizon A., Larceneux F., Monnot E., Parguel B., Reniou F. (2012), Entre permanence et (r)évolution : les finalités sociétales de la recherche française en marketing, Séminaire du groupe DRM-ERMES, FRANCE

Cet article explore les finalités poursuivies par la recherche française en marketing. Une analyse scientométrique des communications de cinq Congrès de l'AFM révèle la permanence d'un puissant paradigme managérial et le développement récent de travaux plus sociétaux. Ces résultats sont discutés dans une perspective historique et critique.

This article explores the purposes pursued by the French research in marketing. A scientometric analysis of four AFM Congresses communications reveals the permanence of a powerful managerial paradigm and the recent development of more societal questions. These results are discussed in a historical and critical perspective.

Larceneux F., Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2012), Aux frontières de la publicité mensongère : quand les contraintes légales font le lit du greenwashing, 1er workshop les enjeux de l'éco-consommation Label bio et étiquette environnementale : Quelles perceptions pour le consommateur ?, La Rochelle, FRANCE

Depuis 1994, dans le but d'orienter le choix des consommateurs vers des véhicules plus respectueux de l'environnement, la Commission Européenne impose aux constructeurs automobiles d'afficher, de manière très visible, le taux d'émission de CO2 des véhicules sur les publicités. Cette obligation, si elle paraît a priori pleine de sens, s'accompagne toutefois d'un effet pervers inattendu. En effet, l'affichage du taux d'émission de CO2 semble de nature à générer, chez les consommateurs non-experts en matière d'écologie, l'inférence que le constructeur est sûr du caractère écologique de ses produits, ce qui décuple l'efficacité des éléments d'exécution publicitaires suscitant le greenwashing. Ce papier valide empiriquement cet effet à l'aide d'une expérimentation menée dans le secteur automobile auprès d'un panel de consommateurs français.

Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B. (2011), Much to tell to consumers about CSR, but who should talk or not talk about it?, 40th EMAC Annual Conference 2011 : The Day After - Inspiration, Innovation, Implementation, Ljubljana, Slovénie

This paper aims at understanding whether firms should engage in CSR communications towards consumers, or let independent third parties do so. A generalisable sample of 275 adults participated in an experiment, manipulating third-parties credible information (positive information, negative, or absence of information) and company communication (generic vs. CSR communication). Results show a systematic positive effect of CSR communication on corporate brand attitude, even when negative third-parties information is available. CSR communication appears as an efficient and un-risky strategy. Results are further developed and discussed.

Parguel B., Lunardo R., Chebat J-C. (2010), Quand l'activisme peut s'avérer contreproductif : une étude exploratoire des effets de la publicité parodique dans le secteur du tabac, 1ère Journée Internationale du Marketing Santé, Lille, France

Première étape d'une recherche portant sur les effets de la publicité parodique anti-tabac sur le consommateur, cet article propose une étude exploratoire d'inspiration netnographique des commentaires laissés sur YouTube par des internautes fraichement exposés à une publicité parodique anti-tabac. Les résultats montrent que la publicité parodique anti-tabac suscite plus d'émotions positives que d'émotions négatives, notamment chez les non-fumeurs, et que les individus y réagissent suivant la source à laquelle ils l'attribuent (i.e., un activiste, l'industrie du tabac ou le gouvernement). La discussion des résultats conduit à anticiper que la publicité parodique anti-tabac pourrait s'avérer contreproductive...

First stage of research on the effects of anti-tobacco brand spoof ads on the consumer, this paper proposes an exploratory study of netnographic inspiration of the comments left on YouTube by individuals freshly exposed to anti-tobacco brand spoof ads. The results show that anti-tobacco brand spoof ads generate more positive emotions than negative emotions, particularly among non-smokers, and that individuals respond according to the source to which they attribute the ads (i.e., an activist, the tobacco industry or the government). The discussion of the results led to anticipate that anti-tobacco brand spoof ads could prove counterproductive...

Parguel B. (2010), Le prospectus promotionnel, de la communication prix à la publicité d'ambiance, XIIIème Colloque Étienne THIL, La Rochelle, France

L'efficacité du prospectus étant rarement étudiée dans la perspective de l'industriel, cette recherche interroge spécifiquement son influence sur la notoriété et l'image de qualité des produits de la marque. L'expérimentation conduite montre que le prospectus s'apparente à une forme de publicité d'ambiance aux yeux des consommateurs, qui traitent peu l'information qu'il véhicule en matière de prix. Ainsi, le prospectus augmente d'abord la notoriété de la marque et améliore ensuite son image de qualité. Il contribuerait ainsi à développer son capital, contrairement à l'idée très répandue d'un effet négatif de la communication promotionnelle sur celui-ci.

Store flyers' effects are rarely studied from the manufacturers' point of view. Therefore, this research specifically examines their influence on brand attention and perceived quality. Our experiment shows that store flyers appear as a form of ambient advertising and that consumers are note very sensitive to the information on prices that they convey. Thus, store flyers first increase brand attention, then enhance brand perceived quality. They would then contribute to develop brand equity, contrary to the widespread idea of a negative effect of sales promotion communication on it.

Benoît-Moreau F., Larceneux F., Parguel B. (2010), Mieux vaut bien faire et le faire dire : Le rôle des notations environnementales dans la régulation du greenwashing, Etats Généraux du Management 2010, Paris, France

L'une des grandes tendances en matière de communication publicitaire actuellement réside dans la mise en avant d'arguments écologiques, à savoir " toute revendication, indication ou présentation, sous quelque forme que ce soit, utilisée à titre principal ou accessoire dans une publicité, établissant un lien entre les marques, produits, services ou actions d'un annonceur, et le respect de l'environnement " (ARPP ). Il existe trois niveaux dans l'utilisation d'arguments écologiques en publicité (Van de Ven, 2008). A un premier niveau, très général, les entreprises communiquent qu'elles opèrent dans le respect de l'environnement pour asseoir leur légitimité au sein de l'espace social. A un second niveau, elles dépassent le respect de l'environnement pour afficher une démarche proactive qui vise l'excellence en matière de responsabilité environnementale. Enfin, à un troisième niveau, les entreprises mobilisent des arguments écologiques comme principal levier de différenciation pour le positionnement de leurs produits ou de leurs services (e.g., The Body Shop, Natura Brasil). Concrètement, en 2009, 6% des visuels publicitaires diffusés sont liés à l'environnement, soit une proportion multipliée par 5,5 depuis 2006 (Bilan Publicité & Environnement, ARPP-ADEME, 2009). Le corollaire de cette tendance s'observe toutefois dans le développement concomitant de la pratique du greenwashing, qui concernerait en 2009 10% des visuels diffusés selon l'étude ARPP-ADEME pré-citée. Généralement traduit par " éco-blanchiment " ou " blanchiment écologique d'image ", le terme greenwashing désigne l'ensemble des annonces utilisant abusivement, c'est-à-dire de manière infondée, biaisée ou excessive, un argument écologique (Bilan Publicité & Environnement, ARPP-ADEME, 2009). Si la pratique du greenwashing pose aujourd'hui question à la société civile (e.g., associations environnementales ou de protection des consommateurs), c'est qu'elle n'est pas sans conséquence. Ainsi, comme toute opération de communication environnementale, elles visent à modifier favorablement les attitudes et les comportements des consommateurs (Van de Ven, 2008 ; Vanhamme et Grobben, 2009) et y parvient dans une certaine mesure en améliorant l'image des entreprises et des marques auprès des consommateurs et en attirant leur bienveillance pour, in fine, augmenter les ventes. En effet, faute d'une information pertinente sur les pratiques réelles des entreprises , les consommateurs sensibles à l'écologie ne peuvent pas distinguer la bonne réputation d'une entreprise du simple discours de rhétorique (Fukukawa et alii, 2007 ; Bernstein, 2009). Ils sont ainsi conduits à favoriser, à leur insu, les entreprises ou les marques qui se déclarent responsables bien qu'elles ne le soient pas, au détriment de celles qui sont effectivement responsables, mais qui ne le revendiquent pas. Finalement, les consommateurs responsables ne peuvent tout simplement pas exercer leur droit à une consommation respectueuse de l'environnement. Dès lors, un dilemme apparaît pour les entreprises qui font de réels efforts pour intégrer les principes du développement durable dans leur activité. En effet, si leurs concurrents usent opportunément d'arguments écologiques sans entreprendre les mêmes efforts, ces entreprises perdent l'avantage perceptuel et commercial relatif dont elles bénéficient du fait de leurs efforts et risquent de se trouver découragées dans la poursuite de ces efforts. Il s'agit d'un cas classique d'asymétrie d'information où la mauvaise pratique chasse la bonne (Akerlof, 1970). Face à ce dilemme, comment la société peut-elle penser la régulation des pratiques de communication environnementale et encourager les entreprises vertueuses à poursuivre leurs initiatives ? Parmi les solutions possibles, ce travail interroge la diffusion de notations environnementales à destination des consommateurs et leur capacité à dissuader les pratiques de greenwashing. Il envisage les notations environnementales, émises par des tierces parties, comme des signaux de marché susceptibles de diminuer les asymétries d'information (Spence, 1973). Afin de tester ce mode de régulation, une expérimentation menée auprès de consommateurs conjugue la connaissance préalable de la notation environnementale d'une marque fictive à l'exposition à la communication environnementale de cette même marque. La discussion de ses résultats encourage la mise à disposition, auprès des consommateurs, d'une information synthétique, claire et accessible sur les efforts conduits par les entreprises en matière de développement durable. Si elle ne devrait pas suffire à décourager les pratiques de greenwashing, la mise à disposition de cette information devrait toutefois permettre de prévenir une partie de ses conséquences négatives.

Parguel B., Butori R. (2010), When students give biased responses to researchers: An exploration of traditional paper vs. computerized self-administration, 39th EMAC Annual Conference 2010 : The The Six Senses, The Essentials of Marketing, Copenhagen, Danemark

This article investigates the impact of two data collection modes (online surveys and paper-and-pencil surveys) and the perceived attractiveness of the experimenter on two types of response biases: social desirability and demand artifacts. Its results highlight the combined effect of the data collection mode and the perceived attractiveness of the experimenter on social desirability and show that signs sensitivity and signs interpretation (two types of demand artifacts) are stronger in the context of online surveys than in the context of paper-and-pencil surveys.

Butori R., Parguel B. (2010), Les biais de réponse - Impact du mode de collecte des données et de l'attractivité de l'enquêteur, 26ème congrès de l'AFM (Association Française de Marketing), Le Mans, France

Dans cette recherche, nous interrogeons l'apparition du biais de désirabilité sociale et de l'artefact de la demande à la lumière des opportunités présentées par la diffusion des technologies de l'Internet dans le domaine des études. L'expérimentation conduite montre que ce mode d'administration ne réduit pas toujours ces biais. D'une part, lorsqu'un enquêteur attractif apparaît sur une enquête en ligne au moyen d'une photographie, le biais de désirabilité sociale est plus élevé que lorsqu'il s'agit d'un enquêteur non-attractif. D'autre part, les sujets sont davantage sensibles aux signes du questionnement et susceptibles de les interpréter lorsqu'ils répondent à une enquête en ligne que lorsqu'ils répondent à une enquête papier-crayon.

In this research, we study social desirability and demand artifacts in light of the increasing use of on-line studies. Our experiment shows that this data collection medium does not always reduce these biases. First, when an attractive interviewer appears on the cover page of an on-line study, the social desirability bias is higher than when the interviewer is unattractive. Second, respondents are more sensitive to demand signs and likely to interpret these signs when they respond to an on-line study compared to a paper and pencil study.

Benoît-Moreau F., Larceneux F., Parguel B. (2010), Can birds make brands "green"? An analysis of substantive and associative execution factors in case of greenwashing, 26ème congrès de l'AFM (Association Française de Marketing), Le Mans, France

Cette recherche examine l'influence des éléments d'exécution substantifs (en l'occurrence sémantique) et associatifs (visuel et sonore) sur l'image écologique d'une marque en cas de greenwashing. Les résultats d'une expérimentation montrent un effet positif de l'usage de la sémantique écologique. Ils montrent un double effet des éléments associatifs (visuel et so-nore) : un effet émotionnel positif sur l'image écologique via l'amélioration de la qualité d'exécution de la publicité et un effet informationnel négatif. Par ailleurs, aucun effet de réso-nance entre les élements d'exécution n'est montré.

This research investigates the effect of substantive (verbal) and associative (visual and sound) execution factors on brand ecological image in case of greenwashing. Experimentation's results show a positive effect of the semantic « more ecological ». They show a double effect of associative elements (visual and sound): a positive emotional effect on ecological image through the improvement of the ad atmosphere, and an informational negative effect. Furthermore, they show no resonance effect between all factors.

Benoît-Moreau F., Larceneux F., Parguel B. (2009), Is "greenwashing" efficient? An analysis of negative elaboration upon advertising executional elements, 25ème congrès de l'AFM (Association Française de Marketing), Londres, Royaume-Uni

Cette recherche examine l'influence du greenwashing publicitaire sur l'image écologiquedu produit et de l'annonceur. Une expérimentation fondée sur le modèle ELM et menéesur 640 répondants manipule trois éléments d'exécution publicitaire : la couleur verte, leterme « durablement » et l'auto-labellisation. Les résultats montrent que les consommateursne se laissent globalement pas tromper par les pratiques de greenwashing publicitaire. Chezles consommateurs non-experts, seul le label écologique auto-décerné présente un fort effetpositif. A l'inverse, chez les consommateurs experts, seul un effet contre-productif a pu êtreobservé dans le cas de l'utilisation de la couleur verte.

The present research investigates the influence of advertising greenwashing onproduct and brand ecological image. Based upon the ELM model, an experiment held on 640consumers manipulates three executional elements of an ad: the use of the green color, thepresence of the word "sustainable" and of a self-claimed ecological label. Results show thatgreenwashing practices are not so much misleading for consumers. For non-expert consumers,the presence of a self-claimed ecological label is the only element that exerts a positive influence.For expert consumers on the contrary, results reveal a counter-productive effect of thegreen color.

Parguel B., Sabri O., Mimouni A. (2009), L'influence relative des éléments d'exécution d'un prospectus, 3ème Forum du Master Géomarketing, Créteil, France

Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B., Larceneux F. (2009), Le consommateur face à l'éco communication : une synthèse des recherches, 7ème journée AACC AFM : L'Eco-Communication Une nouvelle énergie motrice pour les entreprises ?, Paris, France

Parguel B., Sabri O., Mimouni A. (2009), L'influence relative des caractéristiques perçues du prospectus sur son efficacité pour le distributeur, XIIème Colloque Etienne THIL, La Rochelle, France

Cette recherche évalue l'influence de l'attractivité de trois caractéristiques du prospectus - les prix, l'offre et le thème - sur son efficacité pour le distributeur en termes de visite du magasin, d'achat de produits présentés en prospectus et d'image de l'enseigne. Une enquête menée au-près de 958 individus montre que l'attractivité des prix domine l'explication de l'efficacité du prospectus, alors que celle de l'offre a peu d'impact. L'attractivité du thème, pour sa part, in-fluence directement l'image de l'enseigne et indirectement la visite et l'achat en incitant à la consultation du prospectus.

Mimouni A., Parguel B. (2009), Les antécédents de l'attitude envers le prospectus, XIIème Colloque Etienne THIL, La Rochelle, France

Dans cet article, l'exploration de la littérature, complétée par l'interrogation semi-directive de 13 consommateurs, permet d'identifier les bénéfices - exploration, divertissement, fonctionnalité et expression de soi - et les coûts - environnemental et budgétaire - associés à la consultation des prospectus. Une étude quantitative est ensuite conduite auprès de 211 consommateurs pour confirmer l'importance de ces différents bénéfices et coûts dans la formation de l'attitude du consommateur envers le prospectus. Ses résultats soulignent notamment la prédominance des bénéfices de divertissement et d'expression de soi, généralement considérés comme hédoniques, relativement aux bénéfices d'ordre utilitaire plus naturellement associés à la consultation des prospectus. Ce faisant, cet article replace la consultation du prospectus dans une perspective expérientielle de la consommation et invite les distributeurs à une conception plus créative et divertissante de celui-ci.

Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B. (2008), Le rôle de la congruence entre l'enseigne et son engagement dans la construction du capital-marque par la communication sociétale : une approche par la théorie de l'attribution, Congrès International de l'AFM, Vincennes, France

De nombreuses entreprises du secteur de la distribution communiquent sur leursengagements sociétaux afin d'améliorer leur image auprès des consommateurs. Néanmoins,face à la profusion d'arguments plus ou moins fondés, l'efficacité de la communicationsociétale des enseignes est remise en question. Pour mieux comprendre comment leconsommateur interprète l'information qu'il reçoit, notamment en ce qui concerne la naturede l'engagement de l'enseigne, la théorie de l'attribution offre un cadre opportun et permet deformuler des hypothèses qui sont ensuite testées expérimentalement. Les résultats valident lapertinence d'une route « attributionnelle » dans le traitement de la communication sociétalepar les consommateurs qui présentent une forte conscience sociétale.

Many firms, especially retailers, communicate about their societal engagements toimprove their image. Yet, overwhelmed by these more or less well-founded societal claims,consumers get troubles to identify truly responsible retailers, making societal communicationless efficient. To better understand how consumers interpret societal information, especiallyabout the nature of retailers' engagements, the attribution theory is well-suited and helps toderive hypotheses experimentally tested. Results confirm the role of the "attributional" routein explaining societal information treatment for consumers showing strong societalconsciouness.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2008), The role of retailer's societal reputation in brand-equity building with societal communication : an attribution theory approach, 11ème colloque Etienne Thil, La Rochelle, France

De nombreuses enseignes communiquent sur leurs engagements sociétaux afin d'améliorer leur image auprès des consommateurs. Néanmoins, face à la profusion d'arguments plus ou moins fondés, l'efficacité de la communication sociétale peut être questionnée. Mobilisant la théorie de l'attribution, cette recherche examine l'impact de la réputation de l'entreprise sur la façon dont le consommateur réagit à la communication sociétale. Les résultats valident l'absence d'impact de la communication sociétale sur le capital-marque lorsqu'une enseigne pâtit d'une mauvaise réputation. En revanche, en cas de bonne réputation, les consommateurs infèrent des motivations internes dans la prise de parole de l'enseigne, ce qui influence la sincérité perçue de celle-ci et in fine, son capital-marque.

Many retailers communicate about their societal engagements to improve their image. Yet, overwhelmed by these more or less well-founded societal claims, consumers get troubles to identify truly responsible retailers, making societal communication probably less efficient. Based upon the attribution theory, this research examines the role of independent information regarding the retailer's societal reputation on consumers' response to societal communication. Results show the absence of impact of societal communication on brand equity in case of bad reputation, as consumers infer less internal motivations for the retailer to communicate, therefore decreasing its perceived sincerity as well as its brand equity.

Sabri O., Mimouni A., Parguel B. (2008), L'interférence concurrentielle dans la communication par prospectus : une étude exploratoire, 11ème Colloque Etienne Thil, La Rochelle, France

La présence de plusieurs marques concurrentes au sein d'une même page d'un prospectus est une pratique courante. Cette étude s'interroge sur l'effet négatif de cette pratique sur le rappel de la marque et de l'offre promotionnelle en envisageant l'existence d'un processus d'interférence concurrentielle, déjà mis en évidence par les travaux en communication publicitaire. Une expérimentation inter-sujets portant sur 400 adultes indique un effet négatif limité de l'exposition à des marques concurrentes sur le rappel de la marque et de la promotion. Elle montre par ailleurs que cet effet, lorsqu'il existe, touche aussi bien les marques familières que les marques non familières. Des implications managériales sont proposées pour réduire l'effet de l'interférence concurrentielle.

Promoting direct competing brands in the same page of a retailer store flyer has become a current managerial practice. This study questions the relevance of this practice by examining its negative effect on brand and promotion recall. It postulates the existence of an interference effect, already confirmed by previous advertising research. An inter-subject experiment conducted on 400 adults reveals a limited negative effect on brand and promotion recall. It also shows that this effect, when it exists, affects both familiar and non familiar brands. Managerial implications are suggested in order to reduce interference effect.

Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B., Larceneux F. (2008), Comment prévenir le greenwashing ? L'influence des éléments d'exécution publicitaire, Etats Généraux du Management, Paris, France

Cette recherche examine l'influence de trois éléments d'exécution publicitaire (l'usage de la couleur verte, du mot « durable » et la présence d'un label écologique auto-décerné) sur les perceptions des consommateurs en matière de sincérité perçue de la publicité, d'image écologique et d'attitude envers le produit et l'annonceur. Une expérimentation menée sur 640 consommateurs représentatifs de la population française montre que les répondants se laissent peu tromper par les pratiques de greenwashing. Chez les consommateurs experts, aucune des trois pratiques n'exerce d'influence positive. Chez les non-experts, seul le label présente un fort effet positif.

The present research investigates the influence of 3 creative elements of an advertisement (the usage of the colour "green", the word "sustainable" and the presence of a self-claimed ecological label) on consumers' perceptions regarding advertisement sincerity, ecological image and attitude towards the product and the firm.The experiment held on 640 subjects representative of French population shows that these forms of greenwashing are not so much misleading. For experts, none of the three elements has an influence. For non-experts, the ecological label only has a strong influence.

Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B. (2008), Le rôle de la réputation sociétale de l'enseigne dans la construction du capital-marque par la communication sociétale : une approche par la théorie de l'attribution, Deuxième Rencontre autour de la RSE dans la grande distribution - La consommation responsable, Paris, FRANCE

De nombreuses enseignes communiquent sur leurs engagements sociétaux afin d'améliorer leur image auprès des consommateurs. Néanmoins, face à la profusion d'arguments plus ou moins fondés, l'efficacité de la communication sociétale peut être questionnée. Mobilisant la théorie de l'attribution, cette recherche examine l'impact de la réputation de l'entreprise sur la façon dont le consommateur réagit à la communication sociétale. Les résultats valident l'absence d'impact de la communication sociétale sur le capital-marque lorsqu'une enseigne pâtit d'une mauvaise réputation. En revanche, en cas de bonne réputation, les consommateurs infèrent des motivations internes dans la prise de parole de l'enseigne, ce qui influence la sincérité perçue de celle-ci et in fine, son capital-marque.

Many retailers communicate about their societal engagements to improve their image. Yet, overwhelmed by these more or less well-founded societal claims, consumers get troubles to identify truly responsible retailers, making societal communication probably less efficient. Based upon the attribution theory, this research examines the role of independent information regarding the retailer's societal reputation on consumers' response to societal communication. Results show the absence of impact of societal communication on brand equity in case of bad reputation, as consumers infer less internal motivations for the retailer to communicate, therefore decreasing its perceived sincerity as well as its brand equity.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2007), Communication sociétale et capital-marque, 23ième congrès de l'Association Française de Marketing, Aix-les Bains, France

Différents travaux sur la Responsabilité Sociale des Entreprises (RSE) montrent que les consommateurs perçoivent plus favorablement les entreprises agissant de manière responsable, mais n'étudient pas spécifiquement les effets de la communication sociétale et de ses caractéristiques sur le capital-marque. Dans cette recherche, des hypothèses sont formulées à partir du cadre conceptuel du capital-marque proposé par Keller (1993) et testées expérimentalement. Les résultats montrent que la communication sociétale renforce le capital-marque, et que trois autres facteurs interviennent : la sensibilité sociétale des consommateurs, la congruence entre l'entreprise et la cause défendue, et l'interaction entre la crédibilité de l'information sociétale et le scepticisme du consommateur.

Previous research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) generally acknowledges that consumers develop more favourable perceptions of responsible firms. Yet few empirical works have focused on the effects of the firm's societal communication and of its characteristics on brand equity. In this paper we draw on Keller's (1993) brand equity framework to derive hypotheses and test them using an experiment on 200 university students. The findings suggest that societal communication supports brand equity building, which also depends on the perceived congruency between the firm and the cause it supports, societal consciousness and the interaction between perceived claim credibility and consumer scepticism.

Benoît-Moreau F., Parguel B. (2007), Societal communication and brand equity, 36th EMAC Annual Conference, Reykjavik, Islande

Previous research on corporate social responsibility generally acknowledges that consumers develop more favourable perceptions of responsible firms. Yet few empirical works have focused on the effects of the firm's societal communication and of its characteristics on brand equity. In this paper we draw on Keller's (2003) brand equity framework to derive hypotheses and test them using an experiment on 200 university students. The findings suggest that societal communication supports brand equity building, which also depends on the perceived congruency between the firm and the cause it supports, societal consciousness and the interaction between perceived claim credibility and consumer scepticism.

Parguel B., Benoît-Moreau F. (2007), Societal communication and brand equity, Thought Leaders International Conference on Brand Management, Birmingham, Royaume-Uni

Previous research works on corporate social responsibility (CSR) generally acknowledge that consumers develop more favourable perceptions of responsible firms. Yet next to nothing has been written on the effects of the firm's societal communication and its characteristics on brand equity. In this paper we draw on Keller's (2003) brand equity framework to derive hypotheses and test them using an experiment on a sample of 200 French University students. The findings suggest that societal communication supports brand equity building. From a more specific standpoint, when the brand communicates on its societal involvement, brand equity building depends on individual and situational variables, such as perceived congruency between the firm and the cause it supports, societal consciousness and the interaction between perceived claim credibility and consumer scepticism.

de Pechpeyrou P., Parguel B., Mimouni A., Desmet P. (2006), Perceived value and trustworthiness of a multi-mechanism promotion, Venice-Paris 5th Marketing Trends Congress, Venise, Italie

Une promotion multi-mécanismes associe dans la même communication plusieurs mécanismes promotionnels mis en place par le distributeur et l'industriel. D'après la théorie des prospects, la multiplication des mécanismes devrait être créatrice de valeur pour le consommateur. Une expérimentation inter-sujet sur 210 consommateurs, proposant un ou plusieurs mécanismes monétaires pour une valeur constante de l'offre, montre que la promotion simple est préférée. De plus les résultats mettent en avant l'importance de la sincérité perçue dans la valeur perçue d'une offre promotionnelle.

A multi-mechanism sales promotion includes in the same communication several promotion techniques offered either by the retailer or the producer. Framing theory suggests that increasing the number of techniques could increase the perceived value for consumers. A between-subjects experimentation on 210 consumers proposing several offers with the same monetary value indicates that simpler, mono-mechanism offers are preferred. Furthermore, results clearly underline the importance of trustworthiness in the valuation process.

Desmet P., Sabri O., Parguel B., de Pechpeyrou P. (2006), Consumer's perceptions and evaluations of virtual bundling, Conférence Etienne Thil, La Rochelle, France

Le lot virtuel est une offre promotionnelle qui conditionne l'obtention d'une gratuité ou d'une réduction à l'achat simultané d'un nombre déterminé d'unités de produits présentées séparément. Technique promotionnelle présentant de nombreux avantages pour les distributeurs comme pour les industriels, le lot virtuel connaît actuellement un développement rapide dans la grande distribution. Néanmoins, aucune recherche ne s'est jusqu'ici penchée sur l'efficacité du lot virtuel du point de vue du consommateur. Une étude qualitative menée auprès de neuf consommateurs a permis de mettre en évidence la perception de freins associés à cette forme de promotion. Une expérimentation portant sur 120 consommateurs adultes a été mise en place afin de tester les hypothèses issues de la revue de littérature et de l'étude qualitative. Les résultats permettent de conclure qu'il n'y a pas de réduction significative de l'intérêt pour le lot virtuel par rapport au lot réel.

Virtual bundling is a promotional offer in which obtaining free product or money discount is linked to the purchase of a certain number of products presented separately. As a promotional technique offering numerous advantages to retailers and manufacturers, virtual bundling is more and more used in mass marketing. Nevertheless, till now, no research has concentrated on its efficiency from the consumer point of view. From a qualitative study based on nine consumers, the perceived costs associated with virtual bundling have been identified. An experimentation on a sample of 120 adult consumers was set up to test the hypotheses derived from the literature and the qualitative study. The results show that there is no loss of interest for the virtual bundle compared to the real bundle.

Sabri O., Desmet P., de Pechpeyrou P., Parguel B. (2006), Consumer's perceptions and evaluations of virtual bundling, ANZMAC, Brisbane, Australie

Une étude qualitative et l'analyse statistique d'une expérimentation inter sujets montre que les lots virtuels en promotion des ventes sont associés à un bénéfice économique perçu plus important mais génèrent aussi des coûts cognitifs perçus plus importants.

Virtual bundles are promotional offers in which obtaining free product or money discount is linked to the purchase of a certain number of products presented separately. As it offers numerous advantages to retailers and manufacturers, virtual bundling is more and more used in mass marketing. Nevertheless, till now, no research has focused on its efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relative efficiency of virtual bundles compared to real bundles from the consumer's point of view. From a qualitative study based on nine consumers, the perceived costs associated with virtual bundles have been identified. An experimentation on a sample of 120 adult consumers was then set up to test the hypotheses derived from the literature and the qualitative study. The findings suggest that consumers associate virtual bundles with higher economic benefit but also with cognitive costs.

Parguel B., de Pechpeyrou P., Desmet P., Mimouni A. (2006), Perceived value and trustworthiness of a multi-mechanism promotion, 2006 International Association for Research in Economic Psychology Conference, Paris, France

Une promotion multi-mécanismes associe dans la même communication plusieurs mécanismes promotionnels mis en place par le distributeur et l'industriel. D'après la théorie des prospects, la multiplication des mécanismes devrait être créatrice de valeur pour le consommateur. Une expérimentation inter-sujet sur 210 consommateurs, proposant un ou plusieurs mécanismes monétaires pour une valeur constante de l'offre, montre que la promotion simple est préférée. De plus les résultats mettent en avant l'importance de la sincérité perçue dans la valeur perçue d'une offre promotionnelle.

The goal of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of monetary multi-mechanism promotions. These promotions include in the same communication several techniques offered either by the retailer or by the producer. The conceptual framework relies on prospect theory, already used in marketing literature to study the effects of price and promotional techniques (Gupta and Cooper, 1992). It also integrates the perceived trustworthiness of the offer, a key variable for the evaluation of advertising messages (Goldsmith and al., 2000).

Retour à la liste