Bureau : P 437
De Vaujany F-X., Mitev N. (2015), The post-Macy paradox, information management and organising: Good intentions and a road to hell?, Culture and Organization, 21, 5, p. 1-29
Between 1946 and 1953, leading scientists met in New York in the context of the so-called Macy conferences, often linked to the emergence of cybernetics. They hankered for a new vision of mind and society. The traumatism of WW2 was implicit but omnipresent, and the Cold War was beginning. Macy key tools and concepts about information, the value of information, and computer artefacts have finally produced a new world, in particular an organisational world, which is far removed from their original dreams. Organisational members are now involved in difficult situations in terms of organising, that is, new modes of performativity which are difficult to comprehend and deal with; a transformation of meaning and knowledge in collective activity; and a threat to well-being and happiness as mental activities, cognition and bodies are increasingly disconnected. We use the Macy conferences as an entry point to reflect on the 'longue durée' evolution of the material underpinnings of information and their relationship with organising. We first explore the new conceptualisations at the core of the Macy conferences, information, value of information, and computer artefacts. We then put the Macy conferences into a socio-historical perspective by means of two theoretical approaches, iconographical and semiotic; this involves a historical comparison between the 'screen-images' or our Information Age and the 'object-images' of medieval cathedrals. We show that there are important disruptions in organising grounded in a new semiosis, which emerged over the longue durée of collective activity, and was articulated further during the Macy conferences. We describe this long-term evolution as the post-Macy paradox.
de Vaujany F-X., Vaast E. (2014), If These Walls Could Talk: The Mutual Construction of Organizational Space and Legitimacy, Organization Science, 25, 3, p. 713-731
Organizational spaces project claims of organizational legitimacy while also constituting physical environments where work happens. This research questions how organizational space and legitimacy are mutually constituted over time as organizations experience shifts in work and institutional demands.Building on a qualitative case study of Paris Dauphine University, a French university founded in the late 1960s that has, since its inception, occupied the former North Atlantic Treaty Organization headquarters, we theorize the dynamic intersection of organizational space and legitimacy over time. The case study demonstrates how spatial practices of appropriation, reappropriation, and disappropriation intersect with and inform what we call "spatial legacies" that function to establish or repair an alignment between organizational space and legitimacy. Spatial practices of appropriation and reappropriation build and manipulate spatial legacies, whereas spatial practices of disappropriation attempt to break away from such legacies. Appropriation and reappropriation involve managing spatial legacies to maintain the alignment between organizational space and legitimacy claims. Disappropriation involves trying to erase or alter these legacies to realign the space to changing legitimacy claims. This research adds to the literature on sociomateriality by adopting a longitudinal perspective that highlights legacies as nondeterministic outcomes of past imbrications of the social and the material, to research on legitimacy by conceptualizing it as a sociomaterial construction, and to research on organizational spaces by revealing the institutional underpinnings of spatial transformations. This research also holds practical implications by highlighting the relationships between space as it is designed and used and an organization's legitimacy claims and by showing how claiming the immutability or flexibility of a space can be legitimizing for an organization.
de Vaujany F-X., Carton S., Mitev N., Romeyer C. (2014), Applying and theorizing institutional frameworks in IS research: a systematic comparison from 1999 to 2009, Information Technology & People, 27, 3, p. 280-317
Purpose - This paper investigates how Information Systems (IS) researchers apply institutional theoretical frameworks. The purpose of this paper is to explore the operationalization of meta-theoretical frameworks for empirical research which can often present difficulties in IS research. The authors include theoretical, methodological and empirical aspects to explore modalities of use and suggest further avenues. Design/methodology/approach - After an overview of institutional concepts, the authors carry out a thematic analysis of journal papers on IS and institutional frameworks indexed in EBSCO and ABI databases from 1999 to 2009. This consists of descriptive, thematic coding and cluster analysis of this textual database, this combined qualitative and quantitative method offers a unique way of analyzing how operationalization is carried out. Findings - The findings suggest three groups of publications which represent different methodological approaches and empirical foci: "descriptive exploratory approaches," "generalizing approaches," and "sociological approaches." The authors suggest that these three groups represent possible patterns of the use of "meta" social theories in IS research, reflecting a search for disciplinary legitimacy. This helps us analyze papers according to how they use and apply theories. The authors identify the "organizing vision" and the regulatory approach as two institutionalist "intermediary" concepts developed by IS researchers. Furthermore, the authors find that institutional theoretical frameworks have been used in "direct," "intermediary" or "combined" conceptualizations. The authors also confirm the dynamism of the IS institutional research stream, as evidenced by the increase in number of articles between 1999 and 2009, and identify a maturation process of the IS field in investigating a social theory. Originality/value - The evolution the authors identify in the application of institutional theoretical frameworks in the IS field reveals conformity in methodological, theoretical and empirical terms. By identifying these patterns, it becomes possible to understand institutional reasons for their existence and legitimacy; and to propose other avenues of exploration in future IS research, such as combining different theoretical lenses in institutional frameworks. The methodological contribution is to provide an innovative methodology which helps describe categories and levels of institutional theoretical frameworks used, leading to the identification of gaps and proposing further avenues of research.
de Vaujany F-X., Carton S., Dominguez C., Vaast E. (2013), Moving closer to the fabric of organizing visions: The case of a trade show, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 22, 1, p. 1-25
This paper examines the fabric of authorized discourses about Information Technology (IT), i.e. of "organizing visions" (OVs), through the investigation of the discourses, practices, and sociomaterial contexts that make up their micro-social underpinnings. The case of a trade show allows us to explore the production of everyday discourses and practices about IT by gathering many of the parties involved in the fabric of organizing visions. Through a combination of direct observations, interviews, pictures, documents and a survey, we identify and analyze a number of micro-social practices related to the fabric of IT discourses. The trade show we studied was not a context in which new IT buzzwords and concepts emerged, but, rather, it was a setting where existing discourses about IT were repeated, refreshed, and materialized. Our three main findings reveal intriguing relationships between practices, discourses, and sociomaterial contexts: (1) practices and artifacts contribute to enclose the production of discourses; (2) practices and discourses aim at refining and updating an existing discourse about IT; and (3) many actors in the trade shows engage in discourses and practices that materialize the IT artifact. This research adds to the conceptualization of the dynamics of OVs through a better understanding of how they are affected by the relationships between the discourses and practices of multiple actors and by the sociomaterial context in which they take place. It draws several strategic implications concerning the dynamics of OVs at the industry level, how actors influence the fabric of OVs, as well as the roles and combination of artifacts, discourses and practices to build OVs.
de Vaujany F-X. (2012), Paradigmatic Plurality or Citation Market ? A Longue Durée Perspective of Management Writing, Journal of Management History, 18, 3
This essay focuses on the long term emergence of management research journals, and highlights the social, cultural, technological and financial factors that facilitate or constrain such modes of writing. Drawing on historical material and direct observations, two future scenarios can be projected. The first is based on a vast and entirely electronic (co)citation market, in which a writer's "e-reputation" is of central importance. In this context, incentives are purely individual; paradigmatic dimensions have disappeared. The second scenario involves a plurality of paradigms, and consists of diverse communities that employ relatively compatible modes of writing and evaluation. The implications of both scenarios are discussed.
Mitev N., de Vaujany F-X. (2012), Seizing the opportunity: towards a historiography of information systems, JIT : Journal of Information Technology, 27, 2, p. 110-124
Historical perspectives are only timidly entering the world of IS research compared to historical research in management or organisation studies. If major IS outlets have already published history-oriented papers, the number of historical papers - although increasing - remains low. We carried out a thematic analysis of all papers on History and IS published between 1972 and 2009 indexed on ABI and papers indexed in Google Scholar(TM) for the same period. We used a typology developed by theorists Üsdiken and Kieser, who classify historical organisation research into supplementarist, integrationist and reorientationist approaches. We outline their links with the epistemological stances well known in IS research, positivism, interpretivism and critical research; we then focus on their differences and historiographical characteristics. We found that most IS History papers are supplementarist descriptive case studies with limited uses of History. This paper then suggests that IS research could benefit from adopting integrationist and reorientationist historical perspectives and we offer some examples to illustrate how that would contribute to enriching, extending and challenging existing theories.
de Vaujany F-X. (2011), Du retour de la matérialité dans l'étude des organisations : une réflexion sur la conférence EGOS 2011, Le Libellio d'Aegis, 7, 4, p. 19-25
Comment (re)penser la matérialité des organisations (des objets, des bâtiments, des corps... qu"elles abritent) sans (re-)sombrer dans la posture du déterminisme technologique ou matériel ? Comment lier le social ou le matériel pour certains ? Comment dépasser la dichotomie entre le social et le matériel pour d"autres ? Les travaux sur l"espace organisationnel ont remis au goût du jour ces questions déjà anciennes1 (notamment en insistant sur la matérialité des pratiques spatiales). Plus récemment, les approches sur la « sociomatérialité » ont, elles aussi, contribué à la ré-exploration de ce thème.
Walsh I., Mitev N., de Vaujany F-X. (2011), An Historically-Grounded Critical Analysis of Research Articles in IS, European Journal of Information Systems, 20, 4, p. 395-417
In order to explore scientific writing in Information Systems (IS) journals, we adopt a combination of historical and rhetorical approaches. We first investigate the history of universities, business schools, learned societies and scientific articles. This perspective allows us to capture the legacy of scientific writing standards, which emerged in the 18th and 19th centuries. Then, we focus on two leading IS journals (EJIS and MISQ). An historical analysis of both outlets is carried out, based on data related to their creation, evolution of editorial statements, and key epistemological and methodological aspects. We also focus on argumentative strategies found in a sample of 436 abstracts from both journals. Three main logical anchorages (sometimes combined) are identified, and related to three argumentative strategies: 'deepening of knowledge', 'solving an enigma' and 'addressing a practical managerial issue'. We relate these writing norms to historical imprints of management and business studies, in particular: enigmafocused rhetorics, interest in institutionalized literature, neglect for managerially grounded rhetoric and lack of reflexivity in scientific writing. We explain this relation as a quest for academic legitimacy. Lastly, some suggestions are offered to address the discrepancies between these writing norms and more recent epistemological and theoretical stances adopted by IS researchers.
de Vaujany F-X. (2010), A new perspective on the genealogy of collective action through the history of religious organizations, Management and Organizational History, 5, 1, p. 65-78
This article puts forwards a "reorientationist" perspective about the genealogy of collective action and artefacts deployed for its orientation. It draws on the history of religion and religious organizations as elaborated by several promoters of the so-called "new history" in France. These historians (mainly medievalist) can be helpful in writing a different genealogy of contemporary models of collective action (i.e. ways of reaching a goal together) and their institutional context in western countries. They can also facilitate a critical understanding of long-range organizational dynamics.
de Vaujany F-X. (2008), Capturing reflexivity modes in IS: a critical realist approach, Information and Organization, 18, 1, p. 51-72
Critical realism is a subject of growing interest in the IS literature. This article aims at implementing a critical realist framework: Margaret Archer's (2003) internal conversation theory. As a contemporary sociologist, Archer suggests both a general vision of social practice and a typology of reflexivity modes. Her multilayered framework could be extremely useful in overcoming a current limitation in IS: the weakness of reflexivity modelling. Indeed, though much research sheds light on the structureaction relationship, it does not illuminate users' biographical realms and reflexivities. In consequence, some genuine motives in ICT-related practices remain poorly understood. To address this deficiency, this article applies Archer's framework to an IS environment through a meta-analysis of interviews. Results partially confirm the relevance of internal conversation theory and its potential added value to the study of ICT-mediated interactions. A further reflexivity mode and possible re-organizations of the Archer framework are also proposed.
de Vaujany F-X. (2007), Evaluating ICT "value in use". A set of indicators, Revue française de gestion, 33, 173, p. 31-46
De multiples méthodes d'évaluation cohabitent aujourd'hui dans le champ du système d'information, qu'elles soient causalistes ou plus rarement, processuelles. Certaines sont tournées vers des valeurs ajoutées stratégiques, d'autres vers des valeurs plus opérationnelles. D'un point de vue stratégique, il semble cependant que les « valeurs à l'usage » de la technologie ne fassent pas vraiment l'objet de techniques de suivi systématiques. Cet article suggère de s'intéresser davantage à ces aspects.
Various evaluation methods are offered by IS researchers, adopting either a causalist or a processual perspective. Some are focused on strategic addedvalues, whereas others suggest a more operational stance. From a strategic point of view, it seems that there are no systematic techniques to appraise technology "value in use". This article proposes several indicators to evaluate this intangible value.
de Vaujany F-X. (2007), Modeling Sociotechnical Change in IS with a Quantitative Longitudinal Approach: The PPR Method, International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 3, 2, p. 71-95
The following article suggests a critical realistic framework, which aims at modeling sociotechnical change linked to end-users' IT appropriation: the "archetypal approach". The basic situations it includes (the "sociotechnical archetypes"), and the possible appropriative trajectories that combine them, together with three propositions linked to the model, are developed. They are illustrated by means of a case study describing the implementation of an e-learning system within a French university. The paper then presents an instrumentation of the theoretical framework, based on a quantitative longitudinal approach: the Process Patterns Recognition (PPR) method. This one draws mainly on Doty, Glick and Huber (1993, 1994) who propose to evaluate the distance between organizational archetypes and empirical configurations by means of Euclidean distance calculus. The adaptation consists in evaluating the distance between appropriative trajectories (embodied by series of theoretically specified vectors) and empirical processes linked to the implementation of computerized tools in organizations. The PPR method is then applied to the same organizational setting as the one related to the case study. It validates the relevance of this type of a research strategy, which makes it possible to model sociotechnical dynamics related to end-users' IT appropriations.
Carton S., Romeyer C., de Vaujany F-X. (2007), Organizing vision and local IS practices: a France-US comparison, Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS), 19, p. Article 11
In their Organizing Vision model, Swanson and Ramiller called for more research on the relationship between inter-organizational "authorized" (legitimated) discourse on IT and organizational practices. In this paper, the research question is focused on national differences in the way cross-organizational discourses interact with local practices. The methodology used includes the identification of so-called "authorized" ideas through an analysis of both French and US publications (using thematic and lexicometric analysis), as well as IT forums, from 1999 to 2003. This analysis is then merged with an overview of French and American case studies. The results demonstrate strong differences in the OV production systems, as well as in organizational behaviour's reaction to cross-organizational discourse.
de Vaujany F-X. (2006), Élaborer des archétypes de SI par une étude historique : le cas de la Curie Romaine au Vatican, Systèmes d'information et management, 11, 4, p. 55-91
Les travaux typologiques sont nombreux en théorie des organisations comme en Système d'Information. Cependant, rares sont ceux qui s'appuient sur l'étude de très vieilles organisations afin de réaliser un travail de construction d'archétypes. L'article propose de s'intéresser à l'une des plus ancienne organisation au monde, à savoir la Curie Romaine (l'ensemble des services administratifs de l'église catholique, basé au Vatican). Le but est d'élaborer des archétypes de SI cohérents et spécifiques aux grandes périodes de l'histoire de cette organisation. Tout d'abord, la notion d'archétype de SI est expliquée par l'auteur, ainsi que les modalités de sa construction à partir de la méthode historique. Est avancée ensuite une histoire de la Curie Romaine basée sur quatre périodes distinctes (1er-4e ; 4e-16e ; 16e-19e ; 19e à aujourd'hui) correspondant à quatre archétypes de SI spécifiques. Leur environnement institutionnel et technique ainsi que les convictions de dirigeants de l'époque (papes et responsables de congrégations) sont également développés. Enfin, l'article s'achève par une synthèse sur les archétypes et la dynamique générale de leur enchaînement, avant une discussion sur les apports et limites de la perspective historique mobilisée ici.
Numerous typologies exist, whether in organizational theory or IS research. Nonetheless, few of them are based on the study of the very old organizations to work our archetypes. This article proposes a study of one of the oldest organizations in the world: the Roman Curia.
de Vaujany F-X. (2006), Between Eternity and Actualization: the Difficult Co-evolution of the fields of Communication in the Vatican, Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS), 18, p. 355-391
La plupart des travaux sur les processus de structuration ou d'appropriation des innovations dans les organisations laissent de côté le problème des dyschronies. Ils ne prennent pas en compte les différences dans la nature, le rythme et la temporalité des changements qui cohabitent au sein d'une même organisation. En réponse à cette limite, l'auteur propose ici un modèle basé sur la théorie de la pratique et sur l'approche néo-institutionnaliste afin de faire sens de la co-évolution des champs intra-organisationnels. Ce modèle, suggérant un processus d'équilibration entre des tensions institutionnelles, est construit à partir d'une étude longitudinale des différents champs de la communication de la Curie Romaine (l'administration centrale de l'Eglise Catholique installée au Vatican). Ces tensions concernent les domaines socio-techniques, socio-théologiques, socio-organisationnels et socio-économiques. Un ensemble de propositions est suggéré inductivement sur l'articulation entre celles-ci et les relations entre les champs intra-organisationnels (évolutions parallèles, convergentes ou compétitives).
Most research on structuration or the appropriation of ICT in organizations has put aside the problem of dyschronies. It has not taken into account the differences in nature, speed, and temporality of changes that co-exist within an organization. To address this limitation, the author of this paper suggests a model based on the theory of practice and neo-institutionalist perspectives, so as to make sense of the co-evolution of intra-organizational fields. This model, which proposes a balance between various institutional tensions, has been worked out inductively from a longitudinal case study on communication fields within the Roman Curia, the administrative headquarters of the Catholic Church located in the Vatican. These tensions are related to socio-technical, socio-theological, socio-organizational, and socio-economic areas. A set of propositions regarding the link between intra-organizational fields and tensions and the relationships between intra-organizational fields (parallel, convergent, and competing evolutions) is proposed.
Carton S., de Vaujany F-X., Perez M., Romeyer C. (2006), Vers une théorie de l'appropriation des outils de gestion informatisés : une approche intégrative, Revue Management et Avenir, 3, 9, p. 159-179
L'approche proposée dans cet article permet d'intégrer des niveaux d'analyse sur l'appropriation des outils informatisés généralement séparés dans la littérature. En effet, deux principaux courants de recherche étudient l'adoption, la diffusion et les mécanismes d'apprentissage d'outils informatisés : une perspective institutionnelle d'une part, évoquée dans une première partie, une analyse des dynamiques d'appropriation considérées d'un point de vue plus local, micro-social, d'autre part, dont le principe et les modalités sont présentées dans une seconde partie. Enfin, une troisième partie est consacrée à des recherches intégratives des niveaux institutionnels, inter-organisationnels et micro-sociaux, notamment à travers la présentation du modèle de la Vision Organisante de Swanson et Ramiller (1997). Les résultats de ces instrumentations mettent en avant des types de trajectoires différentes d'appropriation (notamment d'ERP ou d'intranet) selon la réceptivité aux discours externes de la part des entreprises étudiées et, des dynamiques de constitution d'idées, des discours autour des objets informatisés différents selon les pays. Finalement, il semblerait que les objets de gestion informatisés s'inscrivent aujourd'hui de plus en plus dans des outils de gestion voire des dispositifs de gestion.
The main objective of this article is to integrate different levels of analysis that are focused on the study of the appropriation process of computerized tools. Two main research trends are namely identified. The first one studies appropriation on the institutional level. It will be presented in a first part. The second one deals with appropriation dynamics on local, micro level. Concepts and main results of this level are developed part two. The third part enables finally to show a comprehensive model from Swanson and Ramiller (1997) that integrates both institutional, cross organizational and local perspectives. The model and instrumentations implemented based on this model are presented. Results from instrumentations highlight different appropriation trajectories from ERP, intranets, depending firms sensibilities on external discourses and also different elaboration of ideas on computerized ideas depending countries. It seems finally that computerized tools must be thought more and more as management tools, and management disposals.
de Vaujany F-X. (2006), Pour une théorie de l'appropriation des outils de gestion : vers un dépassement de l'opposition conception-usage, Revue Management et Avenir, 3, 9, p. 109-126
Souhaitant rompre avec une dichotomie conception-usage encore largement présente dans l'étude des outils de gestion, l'article reprend des cadres théoriques récents des sciences de gestion en les intégrant dans une "perspective appropriative". La première partie développe l'objet et la problématique de l'appropriation des outils de gestion, ainsi que différents regards possibles sur le phénomène. La seconde partie avance deux grandes théories de l'appropriation (la théorie de la conception à l'usage et la théorie de la mise en acte) qui permettent de répondre de façon cohérente à la problématique, en reprenant les objets et les regards mobilisés dans la partie précédente. La réflexion s'achève par une ouverture sur l'évolution et le pilotage des outils de gestion dans une perspective appropriative.
Wishing to break with a design-use dichotomy still heavily present in the study of the management tools, the article introduces various theoretical framework of management sciences by integrating them from an "appropriative perspective".The first part develops the object and the problems of the appropriation of the management tools, along with various possible views of the phenomenon. The second part advances two broad theories of the appropriation the 'design in use theory' and the "implementation theory", which makes it possible to answer in a coherent way the problematic, by integrating objects and views mobilized in the preceding part. The analysis is completed by an opening on the evolution and the control of the management tools from an appropriative point of view.
Dechamp G., Goy H., Grimand A., de Vaujany F-X. (2006), Management stratégique et dynamiques d'appropriation des outils de gestion : proposition d'une grille de lecture, Revue Management et Avenir, 9, p. 181-200
De tous les champs disciplinaires de la gestion, celui abordant le point de vue du stratège est potentiellement l'un des plus délicats à aborder s'agissant de l'étude de l'appropriation des dispositifs et autres outils de conception et de pilotage stratégiques. Mais passée cette première réflexion qui tient à la nature même du management stratégique (nécessairement transversale et englobante), rien ne permet de présager de l'homogénéité des dispositifs stratégiques et de leur appropriation par les acteurs de l'organisation. Comme premier élément d'analyse, nous proposons de distinguer un management stratégique de nature endogène d'un management d'une nature plus exogène. Envisagé sous l'angle d'un nouveau couple ago-antagoniste, nous défendons l'idée selon laquelle cette dichotomie permet d'établir un cadre d'analyse pertinent pour l'étude des dynamiques appropriatives des dispositifs de gestion stratégique.
Among all the disciplinary fields of management, strategy is potentially one of the most delicate to approach concerning the study of appropriation of management tools. Beyond this first reflexion holding with the nature of strategic management (necessarily transverse and including), predicting homogeneity of strategic devices and their appropriation by the members of an organization remains complicated. We thus propose to distinguish an endogenous strategic management of an exogenous one. As a new ago-antagonist couple, we believe that this dichotomy makes possible the establishment of a relevant framework for the study of appropriative dynamics of strategic management tools.
de Vaujany F-X. (2006), Beyond the idea of 'IT users': The contribution of internal conversations theory, Revue d'Interaction Homme-Machine, 7, 1, p. 31-57
Plusieurs chercheurs en sociologie, en gestion ou en systèmes d'information, ont récemment invité la communauté intéressée par la relation technologie-personne à dépasser la notion d'"utilisateur" ainsi que les schémas spécifiques à l'interaction sociotechnique. En s'appuyant sur les travaux d'Archer (1982, 1995, 2003) et tout particulièrement sa théorie des conversations internes, l'auteur propose ici un modèle situant l'usage parmi un ensemble plus vaste d'actions sociales et articulant les interactions sociotechniques avec des modèles généraux de réflexivité. Ce travail de transposition du modèle d'Archer est basé sur une étude de 120 entretiens semi-directifs avec des utilisateurs de technologies de réseaux (principalement des intranets et des systèmes de groupware).
Several researchers in the field of sociology, management or information systems have recently invited the community interested in the technology-person relationship to overcome the 'user' notion and the specific schemes related to sociotechnical interaction. Based on Archer's (1982, 1995, 2003) work, and more precisely her internal conversation theory, the author proposed here to link sociotechnical interactions with general reflexivity modes. This work of transposition of Archer's model is based on a study of 120 semi-structures interviews of ICT (mainly intranet and groupware systems) users.
de Vaujany F-X. (2005), Information Technology Conceptualization: Respective Contributions of Sociology and Information Systems, Journal of Information Technology Impact, 5, 1, p. 39-58
This article analyzes the different phases the Information Systems--Sociology relationship has gone through and points out some specific features of sociologists and Information Systems scientists in their conceptualization of Information Technology (IT). It shows that both academic fields develop more and more convergent theorizations. The first part is centered on an historical analysis of sociology itself. It shows the great comeback of the Object within the sociological field at the beginning of the 80s. Different models have been developed from the generalized kinds of sociology to those that have been focused on the social construction of the Object. These make up sociological groups, which we call "autonomous". The second part presents the sociological approaches used and worked out in the domain of Information Systems (IS). These are presented by means of three historical moments (causalist, actor-based and processual). For each of these stages the influence of sociologies, notably those that deal with the Object, is obvious and models are more or less "illuminated" by means of broader perspectives. In the third part, there is a discussion of ontological differences between the work of sociologists studying IS objects and the work of IS researchers drawing on sociologists' conceptual contributions. Lastly, it seems that if sociology and Information Systems sometimes diverge in the way they study sociotechnical systems, they converge gradually in their conceptualization of the IT artifact.
de Vaujany F-X. (2003), Figures that manage sociotechnical change, Sociologie du travail, 45, 4, p. 515â536
Les outils informatiques occupent une place grandissante dans la vie des organisations. L'étude des dynamiques sociales liées à leurs usages est ainsi devenue une préoccupation importante pour les sciences sociales. L'article qui suit présente une synthèse des travaux récents sur cette thématique, plus particulièrement sur les recherches structurationnistes. Un modèle fédérateur est suggéré : le modèle archétypique. Celui-ci correspond à trois situations stylisées du changement sociotechnique (archétype neutre, régénéré et perturbé) pouvant, dans certains cas, être mises bout à bout afin de reconstituer des trajectoires appropriatives. Le cadre théorique ainsi élaboré est appliqué à différentes technologies de l'information, notamment des progiciels de gestion intégrés (PGI), des intranets ou des systèmes type messagerie. L'article s'efforce ensuite d'aller plus loin que le simple stade de la compréhension des dynamiques sociales en articulant les trajectoires appropriatives avec des logiques de contrôle qui leurs seraient spécifiques. Ces logiques correspondent à des figures de gestionnaires (le canalisateur, le facilitateur et le catalyseur) qui sont précisées dans cette recherche.
Computers and software occupy an ever bigger place in an organization's activities. Studying the social dynamics of their uses has thus become a major preoccupation for the social sciences. An overview of recent studies, in particular "structurationist" research, on this subject is presented; and a federative model, suggested. This archetypical model corresponds to three stylized situations of sociotechnical change (a neutral, regenerated and disturbed archetype) that, in some cases, can be aligned to reconstitute "appropriative trajectories". This theoretical framework is applied to various sorts of information technology, in particular: enterprise resource planning (ERP) software, intranets and electronic messaging systems. Beyond merely understanding the social dynamics, the effort is made to link appropriative trajectories with the "logics of control" specific to them. The latter correspond to figures of management (the channel, facilitator and catalyst), which are described.
De Vaujany F-X., Mitev N., Lanzara G., Mukherjee A. (2015), Materiality, Rules and Regulation. New Trends in Management and Organization Studies, Basingstoke, Hampshire, 336 p.
Materiality, Rules and Regulation: New Trend in Management and Organization Studies concentrates on the relationship of rules and regulation to the materiality of artefacts, practices, and organizations. It combines the recent scholarly interest on sociomateriality with a focus on regulation and rules.
Lanzara G., De Vaujany F-X., Mitev N., Mukherjee A. (2015), Materiality, Rules and Regulation. New Trends in Management and Organization Studies, London, Palgrave Macmillan
Materiality, Rules and Regulation: New Trend in Management and Organization Studies concentrates on the relationship of rules and regulation to the materiality of artefacts, practices, and organizations. It combines the recent scholarly interest on sociomateriality with a focus on regulation and rules.
de Vaujany F-X., Laniray P., Mitev N., Vaast E. (2014), Materiality and Time. Historical Perspectives on Organizations, Artefacts and Practices, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, XI-247 p.
Sociomaterial research overcomes the dichotomy between social and material worlds by concentrating on organizational practices. These practices are constituted by, but also produce, material and social dynamics. This research is currently having an important impact in management studies and adopts a subjective investigation of time to explore materiality and materialization. Studying the institutional evolution of an organization implies long time spans and it is shown more clearly through the inclusion of material traces of past actions. Materiality and Time is split into three parts: Part I explores how time is materialized and performed in organizations, i.e. how artefacts and material space perform time and temporal dynamics in organizations. Part II examines how organizations and organizational members are constituted by and constitutive of material artefacts. Part III reflects on what a historical perspective on these materializations can bring to the study of organizations. Contributions focus on the materialization of time and the material dynamic of organizations.
de Vaujany F-X. (2009), Les grandes approches théoriques du système d'information, Paris, Hermès science / Lavoisier, 239 p. p.
De nombreuses théories ont été développées par les chercheurs en systèmes d'information. Elles permettent de mieux comprendre la conception et l'usage des SI. Elles servent également, pour certaines, à diagnostiquer ces systèmes, à les évaluer et à mieux les piloter. Les grandes approches théorique du système d'information propose une synthèse de ces recherches, illustrée par de nombreux cas et exemples tirés de la vie des organisations. Cet ouvrage s'adresse aux chercheurs en quête d'une présentation des principaux travaux (étudiants en master SI ou innovation, doctorants ou chercheurs confirmés) mais également à tous ceux aspirant à mieux comprendre des SI de plus en plus complexes dans leurs implications économiques, sociales et stratégiques.
De Vaujany F-X., Hussenot A., Chanlat J-F. (2016), Théories des organisations: nouveaux tournants,, Economica
Les évolutions récentes de la pensée en théorie des organisations sont présentées et analysées sous l'angle de la pratique de travail, des modèles d'affaires, des dynamiques organisationnelles et des répercussions sociales.
de Vaujany F-X., Mitev N. (2013), Materiality and space: organizations, artefacts and practices, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan, XXIV-361 p. p.
Materiality and Space focuses on how organizations and managing are bound with the material forms and spaces through which humans act and interact at work. It concentrates on organizational practices and pulls together three separate domains that are rarely looked at together: sociomateriality, sociology of space, and social studies of technology. The contributions draw on and combine several of these domains, and propose analyses of spaces and materiality in a range of organizational practices such as collaborative workspaces, media work, urban management, e-learning environments, managerial control, mobile lives, institutional routines and professional identity. Theoretical insights are also developed by Pickering on the material world, Lyytinen on affordance, Lorino on architexture and Introna on sociomaterial assemblages in order to delve further into conceptualizing materiality in organizations.
de Vaujany F-X. (2005), De la conception à l'usage : vers un management de l'appropriation des outils de gestion, Colombelles, EMS, 282 p.
Porte sur les objets, outils et règles de gestion des organisations, s'intéresse à la dynamique de leur appropriation par les gestionnaires et aux modalités d'évaluation et de pilotage de ce processus.
de Vaujany F-X., Vaast E. (2014), Dual Iconographies And Legitimation Practices In Contemporary Organizations: A Tale Of The Former Nato Command Room, in de Vaujany F-X., Mitev N., Laniray P., Vaast E. (eds), Materiality and Time. Historical Perspectives on Organizations, Artefacts and Practices, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 33-58
In this chapter, the authors propose a theoretical lens to critically examine the iconographies of contemporary organizations. In doing so, they seek to understand how iconographies can be used to legitimize organizations. They distinguish between two iconographies - 'image-object' and 'screen-object' - and examine how they are intricately related to organizational legitimation practices. They then go on to illustrate these iconographies and their relationships in the case study of a French university that has faced intense and changing legitimacy demands. The authors investigate the relationships between these iconographies in the extreme case of the command room of the former North American Treaty Organization (NATO), as the university in question occupies the former NATO headquarters. The case study reveals how university members shifted between iconographies of 'image-object' and 'screen-objects' to legitimize their organizing practices. As a conclusion, implications for debates about sociomateriality and its relationship with organizational legitimacy are discussed.
de Vaujany F-X., Laniray P., Mitev N., Vaast E. (2014), Introduction: Time and Materiality: What Is at Stake in the Materialization of Time and Time as a Materialization?, in Vaast E. (eds), Materiality and Time. Historical Perspectives on Organizations, Artefacts and Practices, Basingstoke (Publishing Building, Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS), Palgrave Macmillan, p. XI-247
De Vaujany F-X., Laniray P., Mitev N., Vaast E. (2014), Conclusion: Understanding Materiality and the Material Underpinnings of Organizations through a Longue Durée Approach, in Vaast E. (eds), Materiality and Time. Historical Perspectives on Organizations, Artefacts and Practices, Basingstoke (Publishing Building, Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS), Palgrave Macmillan, p. XI-247
de Vaujany F-X. (2011), Approches stratégiques des SI dans les organisations, in Thévenot J. (dir.), Master systèmes d'information, Paris, Eska, p. 35-63
de Vaujany F-X. (2011), Revisiter l'appropriation des outils de gestion : la vision improvisationnelle de Claudio Ciborra, in Dominguez-Péry C. (dir.), Valeurs et outils de gestion : de la dynamique d'appropriation à leur pilotage, Paris, Lavoisier : Hermes science, p. 37-58
de Vaujany F-X. (2010), Activités marchandes, activités administratives, marché et organisation : une approche sur la longue durée via l'Eglise, in Hatchuel A., Favereau O., Aggeri F. (dir.), L'activité marchande sans le marché ?, Paris, Mines-Paris Tech, p. 45-64
de Vaujany F-X., Grimand A. (2006), Repères pour un management de l'appropriation des outils de gestion, in Lièvre P., Lecoutre M., Kaba Traoré M. (dir.), Management de projets : les règles de l'activité à projet, Paris, Hermes Science / Lavoisier, p. 198-208
Grimand A., Lévy T., Goy H., Dechamp G., de Vaujany F-X. (2005), Gestion stratégique et perspective appropriative : comparaison des modes endogènes et exogènes, in de Vaujany F-X. (dir.), De la conception à l'usage : vers un management de l'appropriation des outils de gestion, Colombelles, EMS, p. 35-79
Chapitre 2 : Gestion stratégique et perspective appropriative : comparaison des modes endogènes et exogènes. 1. L'appropriation des objets de gestion dans le cadre d'un management stratégique exogène : entre création et re-création de l'entreprise. 1.1. Le management stratégique exogène dans une phase de création d'entreprise. 1.2. Le management stratégique exogène dans un contexte de crise stratégique. 1.3. Contextualisation générale du management stratégique exogène, et développement d'un système propositionnel. 2. L'appropriation des objets de gestion dans le cadre d'un management stratégique endogène. 2.1. Des dirigeants au niveau organisationnel : réflexion sur les moteurs endogènes du management stratégique. 2.2. Contextualisation générale du management stratégique endogène, et développement d'un système propositionnel. 3. Au delà du couple exogène-endogène : discussion sur un nouveau couple ago-antagoniste. 3.1. Des difficultés en pratique du couple management stratégique endogène/management stratégique exogène. 3.2. Un nouvel avatar des couples ago-antagonistes qui traversent le champ du management stratégique ? 3.3. Pour une gestion de l'équilibration entre management stratégique exogène et management stratégique endogène
de Vaujany F-X., Fomin V., Lyytinen K., Haefliger S. (2014), Rules and IT-based practices: A sociomaterial analysis, 4th Organizations, Artifacts and Practices (OAP) Workshop, Rome, Italie
Information technology (IT) extensively regulates organizational processes in contemporary organizations by allowing or preventing behaviors --either to the benefit or detriment of the organization. Yet regulatory processes that create, maintain, and enforce rules in IT-rich contexts have not been extensively analyzed in sociomaterial inquiries. We address this gap by conceptualizing and empirically exploring the interplay of rules and IT-based practices. We define a set of constitutive and enabling relationships between a rule, an IT artifact, and practice, and we narrate their relationships from the following perspectives: 1) how rules are materialized in IT artifacts, 2) how practices are interdependent on IT artifacts, and 3) how rules and practices are temporally coupled. To illustrate and analyze the nature of these relationships, we conduct a longitudinal study of the implementation of an e-learning system in a French public university. In particular, we examine how these relationships were constituted and how they evolved by probing regulatory episodes clustered into five modalities, which we label opportunity-, tool-, functionality-, role-and procedure-oriented modalities. These modalities exemplify specific regulation orientations toward germane features of either the IT artifact or the practice. Accordingly, regulatory episodes differ in terms of the application of the rule (to IT-and/or non-IT-related practices); the scope of the rule (all or part of IT or non-IT related practices); the source (exogenous or endogenous to the practice); and the dynamics and their impact on regulatory processes; they also differ in their form of agency. We conclude by discussing implications of our findings for sociomaterial theorizing and consequent policy implications for regulating contemporary organizations. In summer 2007, Jérôme Kerviel, a trader in the large French bank, Société Général (SG), was fired. He was accused of exposing SG to a massive financial risk resulting in a EUR5 billion loss. Jérôme managed to conceal his excessive trading positions through clever violations and (mis)use of SG's control procedures, most of which were information technology (IT)-based. Although the trading system imposed a maximum ceiling of EUR125 million for trades, Kerviel succeeded in consistently leveraging positions in the order of EUR600 million. At the same time, he concealed his real positions by "transferring" them to his computer, from which he either erased them or maintained them as fake positions. His practice involved a series of violations of regulations that governed trading in SG: theft of user names and passwords, faking of e-mails, and engaging in inverse operations, among others. By doing so, Kerviel "created" his own (more or less shared with his colleagues) regulated world of high risk-bearing operations. He also demonstrated how advanced IT-based control systems could be misused beyond their intended designs. In fall 2011 we learned that the SG incident is not an isolated phenomenon: Similar IT-based trading systems had also been circumvented by a UBS trader, generating thus far a EUR1.5 billion loss. The reason why SG and UBS stories are so interesting is the lesson they teach about rules and their sociomaterial foundations. In a world where money at hand is a sum of daily transactions displayed on a computer screen and the vault's walls are a combination of access and authorization passwords, screen interfaces, and software-inscribed trading limits, a new understanding of the relationship between social and material is needed, of how rules become inscribed in their material foundations and how related practices are affected. The cases suggest caution about the effectiveness of rules in regulating practice: instantiating material constraints into IT does not necessarily result in social compliance. Adding more rules and controls inside the IT system is not automatically effective in shaping practices in the same way that concrete walls and armed guards shaped them. Crucially, students of regulation have known for some time that as more rules are introduced, which was the case at SG, actors can play more games that can result in more unexpected outcomes (Crozier and Friedberg 1977). Despite the pervasive presence and richness of contemporary IT-inscribed rules, we see a paucity of studies on IT use as a form of material-based organizational regulation and associated forms of control. We define IT-based regulation as the regulatory processes that create, combine, and embed rules within IT artifacts and by doing so maintain and enforce rules that, by constraining or enabling social behaviors, govern both the organizational use of IT artifacts and their organizational effects. Organizational studies on regulation have remained faithful to the notion of pure social regulation and have largely ignored its material elements -- in particular, the growing presence of IT (Latour 1994, 2005; Orlikowski and Scott, 2008). A handful of studies has focused on the material dimension of regulation but engaged mainly with "pure" material elements of control, including walls, police, or asylums (Hook, 2001; Latour, 2005). Recent growing interest in material foundations of social life (Orlikowski and Scott 2008, Orlikowski 2008, Leonardi 2011)--labeled sociomateriality--has heeded on a high level the presence of rules and their scripting--their entanglement --in IT artifacts (Orlikowski 2005). But how rules emerge as scripts or how such materialized rules influence practices has remained clouded because the epicenter of sociomaterial debates has been the agent's genius in overcoming materialized scripts in ways that harbor conflict or include illegitimate behavior (Markus and Silver 2008; Barley and Leonardi 2008). In this paper we address this gap by specifically theorizing about sociomaterial regulation that is carried out by embedding rules in IT artifacts. We address the following two questions: 1) What is the nature of IT-based regulations in organizations? We define IT-based regulation as a set of constitutive and enabling relationships between the rules, the IT artifacts, and organizational practices, which we operationalize using three characteristics of rules and their effect over time: 1) the application of a rule (as materialized in the IT artifacts); 2) the scope of a rule (the broad or narrow application to practices); and 3) the source of a rule (whether it is endogenous or exogenous to a practice). 2) How does the embedding of rules in IT artifacts and the related practices evolve through time? We ask whether a sociomaterial perspective can inform how rule creation and its relationship with materiality change over time and influence practices. We juxtapose the sources of rules with the ways in which rules and practices are coupled and identify conflicts between rules and their materialization over time, as informed by our case study.
de Vaujany F-X., Varlander S., Vaast E. (2014), When Sociomateriality meets institutional logics: A study of campus tours as legitimacy building practices, 4th Organizations, Artifacts and Practices (OAP) Workshop, Rome, Italie
Scholars of management and organization studies have become increasingly interested in space and spatial dynamics. The organization of space, the distribution of artifacts, and, more generally the very materiality of work, have become recognized as key dimensions of organizational life (Clegg and Kornberger, 2006; Dale and Burrell, 2008; Yanow and Marrewjik, 2010). Organizational spaces are not merely the context in which practices unfold, but they also shape and are shaped by these practices (Yanow and Marrewjik, 2010). Scholarship on science, technology and society (STS) has long theorized the importance of the mutual constitution of materiality and human agency to understand organizational dynamics, and has viewed materiality and space, in particular, as deeply entangled in every aspect of human life (Latour, 2005; Pickering, 1995; Knorr-Cetina, 1997). This idea of the entanglement between the material world and the organizational one has become recognized as important in organizational scholarship. This growing interest in sociomateriality (Orlikowski, 2007; Leonardi and Barley, 2008; Leonardi, 2011) has not yet fully been reflected in the institutional literature. The flourishing literature on institutional logics draws upon a terminology that acknowledges 'the materiality' of logics (see Jones et al., 2013; Thornton et al. 2012), but it has conceptualized materiality in discursive and structural terms at the expense of its tangible and physical aspects. The connections between sociomateriality and institutional logics have thus not been much examined theoretically or empirically, except for a few, very recent, studies that have recognized the role of artifacts and space in institutional processes (see de Vaujany and Vaast, 2013). This gap in the literature has recently been noted. Friedland (2012) for instance laments that scholars of logics have come to emphasize language and the ideational while artifacts have remained "inert and invisible" (Friedland, 2012, p. 590). Along similar lines, Jones et al (2013) argue that the material dimension of logics "has been surprisingly overlooked" (p. 52) and that objects "have been peripheral to the arguments of those [institutional] articles that focus instead on structures and practices." (p 53). At the same time, sociomaterial research has not yet much ventured in the realm of institutions, focusing instead on how the material and the social mutually constitute each other and shape organizational practices. Examining how organizational space gets endowed with institutional meaning and how institutional logics may be or become ensconced in space and artifacts can broaden the scope of sociomaterial research (de Vaujany and Mitev, 2013). It can connect the entanglement of the social and the material not only to practices, but also to more symbolic, yet significant, dimensions of organizational dynamics, such as, in particular, efforts to legitimate the organization to its stakeholders. This paper therefore argues for a cross-fertilization of sociomaterial and institutional research and does so by examining how the material space(s) that an organization occupies is invoked in organizational legitimization exercises. More specifically, this research investigates the relationships between organizational space and legitimacy in a context where they are most vividly at stake: university campus tours, i.e. the guided discovery of a specific space, aiming at giving an audience an overview of its past, present and future and at establishing the legitimacy of the organization being visited. The importance of tours of physical spaces to 'impress' visitors has long been established (Kuh, 1990; Braxton and Clendon, 2001; Atkinson & Hammersley, 1994). For long, showing a place, emphasizing its history, its beauty, its technical or aesthetic performance, has been a way to legitimate an organization and its leaders. Recently, it has taken on a special criticality for many organizations, though, given the multiplicity of stakeholders they face and the diversity of institutional logics that may govern them. In this paper, we argue that during campus tours organizational members attempt to align their presentation of the campus and its physical setting with what they expect can legitimize their organization in the eyes of external stakeholders. To collect rich and contextual data we used a participant-observation method of several tours. We also relied on secondary data (universities' websites, maps, leaflets, etc). Our sample was based on multiple observations, e.g. at McGill University, La Sorbonne University, Stanford University and Berkeley University. Through our participant-observation of campus tours, the identification of the spaces and artifacts encountered, and the analysis of the story telling produced by our guide, our aim was to understand simultaneously the narrative of the tour and its material inscription. The cross-fertilization between the literature on institutional logics and that on sociomateriality applied to a case of campus tours allowed us to contribute to the literature in three important ways. First, we allude to the role that materiality plays for actors to demonstrate adherence to particular logics. Our research sheds light on how narratives aimed at producing organizational legitimacy and artifacts are interwoven. The narratives made the institutional logics on which the organization drew (e.g. logic of history, logic of social responsibility, logic of functionality, logic of innovation, logic of the market) visible both through the use of language and by invoking a variety of artifacts and spaces to emphasize and visualize these logics to the audience in attempts to make the organization appear trustworthy, aligned with stakeholders' interests and ultimately legitimate. Second, in response to recent calls for a deepened inclusion of materiality in the institutional literature (Friedland, 2012; Jones et al 2013), we show how organizations develop sociomaterial practices to manage potential tensions between institutional logics. For example, in the case of Stanford university, showing the church and framing it as a non-religious place and instead emphasizing its ethical messages clearly illustrated the tensions between a religious logic which the university rejected, and the desire to frame themselves along the logic of social responsibility. Third, we show the importance of employing adequate methodological devices and procedures that enable researchers to visualize institutions and theorize around their materiality. In this particular paper, observing campus tours and being attentive to the artifacts and spaces involved, and document in written as well as photographic forms gave visibility to the institutional logics at stake for the organization in question.
de Vaujany F-X., Fomin V., Lyytinen K., Haefliger S. (2013), Sociomaterial regulation in organizations: The case of information technology, 73rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management - AOM 2013 Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, États-Unis
Information technology (IT) is used to regulate organizational processes both to allow and to prevent specific behavior. Recent scandals in the financial industry exposed overconfidence in IT based regulation and, as scholars of regulation have long known, the games people play increase with the number of rules in place. To explore the practices in organizations with a broad perspective we define sociomaterial regulation as the relationships between the rules, the IT artifacts, and the practices. A new theoretical terminology around the three relationships (materialization of rules in IT artifacts, interdependency between IT artifacts and practices, and coupling in time between rules and practices) helps to explore a large case study of the implementation of an e-learning system in a French university over a five years period. The study reveals five modalities of sociomaterial regulation which can be understood using the three relationships: functionality-, tool-, role-, procedure-, and social process-orientation play out very differently for the organization in terms of the change in practices, the sources of control (hierarchical versus emergent), and innovation activity. We discuss implications for management and policy.
de Vaujany F-X., Dominguez C., Carton S., Vaast E. (2013), Performing information technology pre-adoption: How organization, industry and society matter, 29th EGOS Colloquium - Bridging Continents, Cultures & Worldviews, Montréal, Canada
Dal Zotto P., de Vaujany F-X. (2011), Commerce électronique et co-création de valeur : n'oubliez pas de payer ce que vous donnez !, 16e Colloque AIM, Saint-Denis (La Réunion), France
En dépit de l'importance de la co-création de valeur dans les business models actuels, peu de travaux ont porté spécifiquement sur le phénomène. Dans un premier temps, la notion de co-création de valeur fait l'objet d'une définition précise. Les auteurs s'efforcent ensuite de développer des critères d'appréciation de la co-création de valeur. L'étude, fondée sur une démarche netnographique, approfondit 12 cas exploratoires. Il émerge de l'analyse 3 matrices permettant de classer les formes de co-créations de valeur. Enfin, à partir de trois cas plus approfondis, un modèle fédérateur (qualifié de 3COM) est proposé. Il intègre les logiques de « don » et d' « objets frontières » afin d'expliquer la dynamique de la co-création de valeur dans une perspective sociologique.
Despite the importance of co-creating value in the actual business models, few studies have focused specifically on the phenomenon. First, the concept of value co-creation of value is precisely defined. Then, the authors work to develop criteria for assessing the co-creation of value. The study, based on a netnographic approach, deepens 12 exploratory cases. Three matrix emerges from the analysis. They allow categorizing the forms of co-creation of value. Finally, a deeper analysis of three cases allows us to propose a unifying model (called 3COM). It incorporates the logic of "gift" and "boundary objects" to explain the dynamics of co-creation of value from a sociological perspective.
de Vaujany F-X., Vaast E. (2011), History, information and sociomateriality: The case of Dauphine University building (1959-2010), The seventh SSIT Open Research Forum, Londres, Royaume-Uni
de Vaujany F-X., Mitev N., Walsh I. (2011), Developing theoretical contributions in IS research: a focus on revision processes in top-tier journals Organizations, Organizations, Artefacts and Practices (OAP) workshop, Paris, France
The development of theoretical contributions is extensively discussed in management research. However, the processes of developing theories and their relationships to the processes of submitting. Reviewing and revising papers are relatively neglected, in particular in MIS. Work has already been carried out on the historical context and practices of writing MIS academic papers, in particular examining commonly found argumentative strategies; but the role of revision in developing and refining management theories remains a black box. This paper investigates this issue through a qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews of academics as writers and reviewers, and a thematic or lexicometric analysis of editorial statements of major MIS, OS or MGT journals.
Dominguez C., Carton S., de Vaujany F-X. (2010), Getting closer to the fabric of IT fads and fashions : the case of an IT trade show in France, 2010 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management., Montréal, Canada
de Vaujany F-X. (2010), Une perspective historique sur l'écriture scientifique en gestion: vers un marché des citations ?, Journées Management et Organisation - CREPA : "Nouvelles perspectives théoriques et épistémologiques sur l'action collective organisée", Paris, France
de Vaujany F-X. (2010), L'Alignement Stratégique: Quelle Autre Perspective? Une Vision Orientée Pratiques des Valeurs du SI, 29th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Paris, France
Pour l'essentiel, les recherches traitant des valeurs stratégiques du SI restent dans le paradigme de l'alignement stratégique, et utilisent des notions telles que celles de "processus" ou "d'activités". En s'appuyant sur la perspective offerte par les théories de la pratique, cet article offre une alternative en distinguant trois formes de praxis et des valeurs spécifiques.
Literature about IS strategic management or IS strategic value is abundant. Nonetheless, the bulk of existing studies are focused on the concept of alignment. They do not make sense of a strategic value "in practice" and still draw on notions such as activity or process to make sense of alignment. By means of a practice-based view of technology, three praxis are suggested here for the modeling of strategic value: legitimacy-related (based on adoption praxis), assimilative (related to design and acceptance praxis) and appropriative (linked to local adaptation and improvisation praxis). They are introduced by means of a "thought experiment" (a short story about a rifle).
de Vaujany F-X. (2009), Un éclairage original de l'appropriation des outils de gestion : la vision improvisationnelle de Claudio Ciborra, XVIIIème Conférence de l'AIMS, Grenoble, France
Claudio Ciborra est un auteur majeur de la théorie des organisations et des systèmes d'information anglo-saxons. Ses travaux sont cependant relativement méconnus dans le champ francophone des sciences de gestion. Nous proposons ici de résumer l'essentiel de ses recherches et de montrer en quoi sa vision des organisations comme un lieu de bricolage et d'improvisation permet d'appréhender l'appropriation des outils de gestion sous un angle différent. Le cadre théorique est illustré par le cas de l'intranet de France Télécom sur la période 1996-2005.
de Vaujany F-X. (2009), Elaborating a research paper in IS: historical, epistemological and practical aspects, 14ème colloque de l'Association Information et Management (AIM 2009), Marrakech, Maroc
Construire un article de recherche. Il s'agit d'une des activités centrales du chercheur en sciences de gestion notamment en systèmes d'information. L'auteur pro- pose ici de revenir sur la naissance des écrits acadé- miques en s'appuyant sur l'histoire longue et complexe des universités, ainsi que celle des enseignants- chercheurs qu'elles abritent. Au terme de cette analyse historique, plusieurs étapes servent de jalons à la com- préhension de l'élaboration d'un article : la conception de la recherche, la préparation du document, puis sa valorisation. Elles sont analysées sous des angles épistémologiques et pratiques. L'article, davantage descriptif que normatif, s'achève par une invitation à une réflexion sur le sens de la publication scientifique.
The elaboration of an academic paper. This is a key activity of researchers in management, notably in SI. The author suggests coming back to the history of aca- demic writing, by means of a study of the birth of uni- versity and academics. Then, several stages are identi- fied for the understanding of academic articles: the design of research, the preparation of the paper, and its valorisation. They are analysed from a practical and an epistemological perspective. The article, more descriptive than normative, concludes by means of an invitation to come back to the very meaning of academic publications.
Fomin V., Loebbecke C., Lesca N., de Vaujany F-X. (2008), The Espoused Theories of IS: A Study of General Editorial Statements, 29th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Paris, France
In the IS field there has been an ongoing tradition to study the publication output of the community in order to evaluate the current and potential situation of IS research. In this work, we follow a different strategy and study what IS research claims to be. We look at those so-called 'espoused theories of IS' as found in the General Editorials Statements (GES) of IS journals. Based on the AISWorld journal ranking, we collected GES for 30 leading IS journals for the years 1997 and 2007. We applied thematic, lexicometric, and factor analyses to the datasets of the 1997 and the 2007 GES. Our results show that the representation of IS research in the GES has changed little over the last decade.
Fomin V., de Vaujany F-X. (2008), Theories of ICT Design: Where Social Studies of Technology Meet the Distributed Cognitive Perspective, International Conference on Information Systems, ICIS 2008, Paris, France
In this paper we examine the possibility to bridge theory of Distributed Cognition with popular theories of Social Studies of Technology (in particular, Actor-Network Theory and Social Construction of Technology). Responding to a recent call for revisiting the design metaphor, in this paper we aim to obtain more precise terminology for describing the phenomena of ICT design in theoretical terms. We argue that establishing correlations between the two bodies of literature adds new knowledge to a community of scholars caters for betterment of managerial practice in complex design tasks.
de Vaujany F-X., Fomin V. (2007), A new theoretical framework for artifact-mediated regulation, 28th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Montréal, Canada
In this paper, we attempt to integrate the traditionally disparate concepts of technology design, use and organizational practice in organizational studies. Using Jean-Daniel Reynaud's joint-regulation theory, we demonstrate how these traditionally separate perspectives on ICT-related practice and organizational change process can be brought together under the umbrella of a practice-based view emphasizing rule-setting in organizations. Further, we synthesize existing accounts of practice-based view on organizational processes to introduce the notion of artifact-mediated regulation. It is argued that combined with Reynaud's joint-regulation theory, the proposed notion of artifact-mediated regulation provides a tool for holistic analysis of the dynamics between ICT design and use and organizational practice.
de Vaujany F-X. (2007), La relation pratiques religieuses-pratiques managériales : une approche historique, XVIème Conférence Internationale de Management Stratégique (AIMS), Montréal, Canada
Aux côtés de l'armée, les premières organisations ont été, pour beaucoup d'entre elles, de nature religieuse, ou en tous cas imprégnées de considérations religieuses. Les premières pratiques d'animation et de finalisation de l'action collective ont plus généralement été marquées par des pratiques religieuses. En centrant le propos sur l'Eglise Catholique et ses enclaves (monastères, abbayes, autorités diocésaines, universités du Moyen Age...), l'auteur propose de s'interroger sur l'articulation entre pratiques religieuses et pratiques managériales, étudiée dans une perspective historique (surtout sur le Moyen Age). L'analyse porte tout d'abord sur le rôle de l'Eglise et de ses différentes enclaves (tout particulièrement les monastères et les universités) dans l'émergence de l'organisation comme bureaucratie et lieu de pratiques managériales (1.). Le développement et l'affirmation de la règle bénédictine sont ainsi associés à une nouvelle forme d'action collective qui préfigure la bureaucratie à venir. En outre, le développement des universités et l'action isolée de nombreux religieux sont liés à l'élaboration et la diffusion de multiples techniques de gestion. Plus indirectement, les pratiques religieuses semblent également être un objet opportun pour comprendre les pratiques managériales "par contraste". L'étude historique n'est pas seulement utile afin d'établir une généalogie des pratiques managériales. En intégrant des variables centrales exacerbées dans les organisations religieuses et leur évolution (valeurs, culture, schèmes interprétatifs), elle permet aussi de mieux comprendre l'influence de ces variables sur le partage des connaissances ou la résilience organisationnelle (2.).
de Vaujany F-X. (2006), Conceptualizing I.S. archetypes through history: a study of the Roman Curia, International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Montréal, Canada
Many typologies of I.S. archetypes exist in the current literature. But very few rely on long term past perspectives, which could result in a precious opportunity to suggest innovative configurations related to specific institutional environments. On the other hand, historiography is a subject of growing interest in IS. Nonetheless, if many studies have already been carried out on the history of the technology or computer industries, very few have dealt with organizational IS history. This is regrettable, as it would give researchers a unique opportunity to understand long term IS dynamics and to grasp historical I.S. archetypes. Here, the author outlines a history of the IS of one of the oldest organizations in the world: the Roman Curia (the headquarters of the Catholic Church located within the Vatican). First, the specificities of the object of research (a missionary organization) are explained and methodological details are given. Then, a formal history (pointing out four chronological archetypal IS) is put forward. Lastly, the contributions, limitations and perspectives of this research are discussed.
de Vaujany F-X., Mitev N., Smith M., Walsh I. (2014), Renewing Literature Reviews in MIS Research? A Critical Realist Approach,, 55 p.
Literature Reviews (LR) are particularly useful for demonstrating the coherence and cumulativeness (or lack thereof) of MIS research and for developing avenues for further research. Most top-tier journals now publish LRs, and many have even begun devoting specific sections to them. Our starting point is that LRs are not epistemologically neutral, and three approaches commonly underlie literature reviews: positivism (identifying the concepts, theories and models closest to the phenomenon that is being explained); interpretivism (identifying the various concepts and theories expressed by various actors and grouping them into multiple perspectives); and critical approaches (identifying both the underlying assumptions and conditions of the production of theories and their effects). We suggest a fourth approach to LRs underpinned by the philosophy of critical realism (CR) and argue that it can enable the (re)interpretation of existing literature through the identification of underlying generative mechanisms. These generative mechanisms provide a common denominator to enable the synthesis of concepts and theories in new ways, helping to bridge previously thought to be incompatible theories, and contributing to a more cumulative view of academic knowledge. We illustrate the value of a CR-based literature through its application to the topic of IT Strategic Value in the MIS and strategic management literature; we show how the identification of four generative mechanisms and three core agencies can support a more integrated view of IT Strategic Value. We then discuss the implications of the use of generative mechanisms and propose guidelines from a CR perspective for carrying out literature reviews.
de Vaujany F-X., Carton S., Dominguez C., Vaast E. (2012), Performativity and Information Technologies: An inter-organizational perspective, Cahier de recherche du CERAG, 47
The concept of performativity holds that discourses are more than mere representations of external realities. Instead, discourses constitute reality; even a simple speech act is constitutive of "something". Under certain conditions ("felicity conditions"), the enunciation of a simple word or sentence can create a new social status or a new social condition (i.e. the process of being married or arrested). Discourses related to information technologies, be they organizational or inter-organizational, are thus active elements of what IT is, can do, or can assist with in an organization. Through three case studies of IT trade shows (TS) in France (which focused on the mechanical industry and the domains of logistics and e-commerce), we show that inter-organizational discourses about IT can perform IT in very different ways. More specifically, our research illustrates that the various relationships between discourses about IT and the materiality of IT depend on the industry and its culture. IT speech acts are perlocutionary utterances that are reliant on industry-related contexts and their specificities. In continuation with this general thesis, our fieldwork gives way to two key theoretical contributions. Firstly, IT performativity can be exerted at the level of material artifacts, activities, processes or integrative managerial concepts, depending on the industry. Secondly, the felicity conditions of this performativity are largely grounded in a sociodiscursive network (of which TS are key stakeholders) that loosely relies on coupled, interorganizational networks. In line with these two contributions, we also consider the implications of organizations' IT purchases, the strategic scanning of IT (i.e. what should be the semantic focus of scanning activities), the understanding of IT fashions and their emergence, and the everyday management of IT in organizations.
Carton S., de Vaujany F-X., Mitev N., Romeyer C. (2012), Applying Institutional Theoretical Frameworks in MIS Research, Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Systems, 42
This article investigates how Information Systems researchers apply institutional theoretical frameworks. We include theoretical, methodological and empirical aspects to explore modalities of use. After an overview of institutional concepts, we carry out a thematic analysis of journal papers on IS and institutional theory indexed in EBSCO and ABI databases from 1999 to 2009. This consists of descriptive, thematic coding and cluster analysis of this textual database. On the basis of thematic coding and cluster analysis, our findings suggest three groups of publications which represent different methodological approaches and empirical foci: descriptive exploratory approaches, generalizing approaches, and sociological approaches. We suggest that these three groups represent possible patterns of the use of meta social theories in IS research, reflecting a search for disciplinary legitimacy. This helps us analyze papers according to how they use and apply theories. We identify the organizing vision and the regulatory approach as two institutionalist intermediary concepts developed by IS researchers. Furthermore, we find that institutional theoretical frameworks have been used in direct, intermediary or combined conceptualizations. As a conclusion, we make suggestions to blend different conceptualizations, methodologies and empirical foci to enrich the use of institutionalist theories in IS empirical research. A comparison with the use of, for instance, structuration theory in IS research would also further insights into how researchers apply meta theories and may help develop IS theorization further.
de Vaujany F-X. (2012), Une comparaison moyen âge - période contemporaine sur le rapport à l'information dans l'action collective organisée, Cahier de recherche Chaire Intelligence économique et stratégie des organisations (IESO), Paris, Université Paris-Dauphine, 27
D'où vient la notion d'information ? Comment a évolué sur le long terme le rapport à l'information des individus impliqués dans une action collective ? En s'appuyant sur une perspective généalogique, cet essai est l'occasion de revenir sur la genèse de l'information et de constater un certain nombre de continuités ou de ruptures historiques. L'analyse s'appuie sur des éléments d'étymologie et d'histoire des sociétés occidentales (en particulier la France). Il s'agit de comparer le Bas Moyen Age, avec la période contemporaine empreinte de cette «modernité liquide» décrite par Bauman (2000). Le rapprochement montre que l'évolution historique de l'information et de sa place dans l'action collective organisée sont difficilement dissociables d'une généalogie du signe et de l'image. Il suggère également que les continuités entre Moyen Age et période contemporaine sont plus importantes qu'on ne pouvait le supposer.
de Vaujany F-X., Lesca N., Fomin V., Loebbecke C. (2009), Community on the watch: making sense of is research through the lens of espoused theories of is, Cahiers de recherche du CERAG, Paris, CNRS, 28
Community on the Watch: Making Sense of IS Research through the Lens of Espoused Theories of IS In the IS field there has been an ongoing tradition to study the publication output of the community in order to evaluate the current and potential situation of IS research. In this work, we follow a different strategy and study what IS research claims to be. We look at those so-called 'espoused theories of IS' as found in the General Editorials Statements (GES) of IS journals. Based on the AISWorld journal ranking, we collected GES for 30 leading IS journals for the years 1997 and 2007. We applied thematic, lexicometric, and factor analyses to the datasets of the 1997 and the 2007 GES. Our results show that the representation of IS research in the GES has changed little over the last decade.
Carton S., de Vaujany F-X., Romeyer C. (2008), Operationalizing meta-approaches in IS : the case of institutional framworks, Cahiers de recherche CERAG, 27
IS research's growing interest in institutional and neo-institutional approaches is confirmed by several literature reviews. Nonetheless, few works have studied the instrumentation of institutional frameworks, the concrete way these very meta-theoretical perspectives have been implemented up till now. This research begins with an overview of institutional and neo-institutional research, along with the more intermediate frameworks which have been extrapolated from them, before an analysis of a set of empirical articles or communications (from 1999 to 2006). Data have been treated by means of a thematic, a lexicometric and a cluster analysis (based on a canonical analysis). Thematic and lexicometric analysis show the domination of cross-sectional research (in particular for communications), and some interesting specificities in the process and level of analysis. Most research thus assumes some transnational and universal mechanisms of legitimation of technology (whatever the theoretical framework implemented). More specifically, the cluster analysis results in the elaboration of three groups of empirical research, with for all of them different instrumentation strategies.